100 Places To See Before You Die
the architecture you must see....
Top Ten World Architecture Click here for complete list
New York World London Dubai Paris Rome
50 Strange Buildings of the World
Paris (click city names for more extensive lists)
The Tower at sunrise. 021B.jpg (69534 bytes) 030a.jpg (48158 bytes) 005A.jpg (88039 bytes)
Eiffel Tower Notre Dame Cathedral Mont Martre Loire Valley Châteaux Centre Pompidou St. Louis des Invalides
043-teautrianon.jpg (88426 bytes) 034-Place_Vosges_Paris_Mai_2006_011.jpg (75314 bytes) 025-Palais_Garnier_bordercropped.jpg (81222 bytes) 033B.jpg (37440 bytes) I.M. Pei's Louvre Pyramid: one of the entrances to the galleries lies below the glass pyramid.
Palace of Versailles Place des Vosges Paris Opera Villa Savoye Arc de Triomph Musée du Louvre
17a.jpg (39045 bytes) 012b.jpg (75699 bytes) 15-450px-Spanish-steps.jpg (74942 bytes) 013b.jpg (41263 bytes) 014c.jpg (46917 bytes) 020a.jpg (64104 bytes)
Roman Colosseum Pantheon Piazza di Spagna Piazza Navona Piazza del Campidoglio S. Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane
4-vatican03.jpg (55291 bytes) 029-FORUM-06.jpg (88109 bytes) 034-trevi.jpg (52449 bytes) 09-arch-of-titus.jpg (45275 bytes) 009a.jpg (56609 bytes)
St. Peter's of Rome Vatican City The Roman Forum Trevi Fountain Arch of Titus Mausoleum of Hadrian
002-Firenze.Duomo01.jpg (87571 bytes) 004-ospedale_degli_Innocenti-by_S_Annunziata.jpg (63853 bytes) 007B.jpg (80983 bytes) 008A.jpg (49942 bytes) 005-Palazzo_Strozzi_2.jpg (92159 bytes) 010-slorenzo.jpg (79369 bytes)
Florence Cathedral Ospedale Degli Innocenti Ponte Vecchio S. Maria Novella Palazzo Strozzi San Lorenzo
Sagrada Familia, Barcelona Park Guell, Barcelona The Alhambra, Granada Generalife, Granada the Mezquita, Cordoba Seville cathedral, Seville
United Kingdom London
026-StPaulsCathedralSouth.jpg (78835 bytes) The Abbey's western façade 047-Houses.of.parliament.overall.arp.jpg (54285 bytes) 044-Tower_of_London2C_Traitors_Gate.jpg (93369 bytes) The Norman West Front of Lincoln Cathedral
Stonehenge Saint Paul's Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Palace, or Houses of Parliament Tower of London Winchester Cathedral
other Europe
The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia Dublin Brandenburg Gate, Berlin Neuschwanstein, Bavaria The Acropolis, Greece Amsterdam
The Great Pyramids at Giza The Sphinx Temple of Ramses II Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Colossi of Memnon The Temple of Amon
Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, NH Vanderbilt Residence, Asheville, NC. Monticello , Charlottesville, VA. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Fallingwater, Bear Run, PA. "Glass House," Philip Johnson house, New Canaan, CT
New York
Empire State Building STATUE OF LIBERTY Chrysler Building Brooklyn Bridge Grand Central Terminal Woolworth Building
Washington, DC
The White House Thomas Jefferson Memorial U.S. Capitol Lincoln Memorial Washington Monument Supreme Court
The Americas
Chichén Itzá, Mexico Christ Redeemer, Rio Machu Picchu, Peru      
Middle East
The Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey Petra, Jordan Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem Samarra, Great (or al-Mutawakkil) Mosque, Baghdad, Iraq Isfahan, Great Mosque, Iran Registan Square, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
The Taj Mahal, India Angkor Wat, Cambodia Dubai The Forbidden City, Peking The Summer Palace, Peking Temple of Heaven, Peking
The Great Wall, China Easter Island Moas The Sydney Opera House Timbuktu, Mali    
major cities in detail click here for complete list
The Tower at sunrise. 001-gherkin3.jpg (31677 bytes) lib13.jpg (36301 bytes)  
Paris London Sydney New York Chicago  Amsterdam
A small canal in Venice (Rio della Verona).
Berlin Italy Spain Egypt Islamic Beijing
Global city

Alpha world cities (full service world cities)
12 points: London, New York, Paris, Tokyo
10 points: Chicago, Frankfort, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Milan, Singapore

Beta world cities (major world cities)
9 points: San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, Zürich
8 points: Brussels, Madrid, Mexico City, São Paulo
7 points: Moscow, Seoul

Gamma world cities (minor world cities)
6 points: Amsterdam, Boston, Caracas, Dallas, Düsseldorf, Geneva, Houston, Jakarta, Johannesburg, Melbourne, Osaka, Prague, Santiago, Taipei, Washington
5 points: Bangkok, Beijing, Montreal, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw
4 points: Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Miami, Minneapolis, Munich, Shanghai

It has been argued that global cities are those sharing the following characteristics:

International, first-name familiarity; whereby a city is recognised without the need for a political subdivision. For example. although there are numerous cities and other political entities with the name Paris or variations on it, one would say "Paris", not "Paris, France".
Active influence and participation in international events and world affairs; for example, New York City is home to the United Nations headquarters complex and consequently contains a vast majority of the permanent missions to the UN[3].
A fairly large population (the centre of a metropolitan area with a population of at least one million, typically several million).
A major international airport (for example, London Heathrow Airport) that serves as an established hub for several international airlines.
An advanced transportation system that includes several freeways and/or a large mass transit network offering multiple modes of transportation (rapid transit, light rail, regional rail, ferry, or bus).
In the West, several international cultures and communities (such as a Chinatown, a Little Italy, or other immigrant communities). In other parts of the world, cities which attract large foreign businesses and related expatriate communities; for example, Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Moscow.
International financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters (especially conglomerates), and stock exchanges (for example the London Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange or the Tokyo Stock Exchange) that have influence over the world economy.
An advanced communications infrastructure on which modern trans-national corporations rely, such as fiberoptics, Wi-Fi networks, cellular phone services, and other high-speed lines of communications.
World-renowned cultural institutions, such as museums and universities.
A lively cultural scene, including film festivals (for example the Toronto International Film Festival), premieres, a thriving music or theatre scene (for example, West End theatre and Broadway); an orchestra, an opera company, art galleries, and street performers.
Several powerful and influential media outlets with an international reach, such as the BBC, Associated Press, Reuters, The New York Times, The Times, or Agence France-Presse.
A strong sporting community, including major sports facilities, home teams in major league sports, and the ability and historical experience to host international sporting events such as the Olympic Games, Football World Cup, or Grand Slam tennis events.
To some, London, New York City, Paris, and Tokyo have been traditionally considered the 'big four' world cities – not coincidentally, they also serve as symbols of global capitalism. However, many people have their own personal lists, and any two lists are likely to differ based on cultural background, values, and experience.

In certain countries, the rise of suburbia and the ongoing migration of manufacturing jobs to these countries has led to significant urban decay. Therefore, to boost urban regeneration, tourism, and revenue, the goal of building a "world-class" city has recently become an obsession with the governments of some mid-size cities and their constituents.

The phenomenon of world-city building has also been observed in Buenos Aires, Santiago, Frankfurt, Montréal, Sydney, Mexico City and Toronto: each of these cities has emerged as large and influential.

Evidence of world city formation

Strong evidence
3 points: Athens, Auckland, Dublin, Helsinki, Luxembourg, Lyon, Mumbai, New Delhi, Philadelphia, Rio de Janeiro, Tel Aviv, Vienna

Some evidence
2 points: Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Birmingham (UK), Bogotá, Bratislava, Brisbane, Bucharest, Cairo, Cleveland, Cologne, Detroit, Dubai, Ho Chi Minh City, Kiev, Lima, Lisbon, Manchester, Montevideo, Oslo, Riyadh, Rotterdam, Seattle, Strasbourg, Stuttgart, The Hague, Vancouver

Minimal evidence
1 point: Adelaide, Antwerp, Aarhus, Baltimore, Bangalore, Bologna, Brasília, Calgary, Cape Town, Colombo, Columbus, Dresden, Edinburgh, Genoa, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Kansas City, Leeds, Lille, Marseille, Richmond, St. Petersburg, Tashkent, Tehran, Tijuana, Turin, Utrecht, Wellington

GaWC Leading World Cities (2004 Edition)
An attempt to redefine and recategorise leading world cities was made by PJ Taylor at GaWC in 2004.
This ranking list is referred to as the Official GaWC List.

Global Cities

Well rounded global cities
Very large contribution: London and New York City.
Smaller contribution and with cultural bias: Los Angeles, Paris and San Francisco.
Incipient global cities: Amsterdam, Boston, Chicago, Madrid, Milan, Moscow, Toronto.

Global niche cities - specialised global contributions
Economic: Hong Kong, Singapore, and Tokyo.
Political and social: Brussels, Geneva, Strasbourg and Washington.
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