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Tuscan order

The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570

The Tuscan order in Andrea Palladio, Quattro Libri di Architettura, 1570

Among the classical orders of architecture, the Tuscan order is the newcomer, a stocky simplified variant of the Doric order that was introduced into the canon of classical architecture by Italian architectural theorists of the 16th century. The five orders including a "Tuscan order" were meticulously described by the Italian Sebastiano Serlio in his treatise on architecture (1537 – 51). In the Tuscan order as Serlio envisaged it, the column had a simpler base and was unfluted, while both capital and entablature were without adornments. A plain astragal ringed the column beneath its plain cap.

This primitive and sturdy order was considered most appropriate in military architecture and in docks and warehouses when they were dignified by architectural treatment.

Because the Tuscan mode is easily worked up by a carpenter with a few planing tools, it became part of the vernacular Georgian style that has lingered in places like New England and Ohio deep into the 19th century. In gardening, "carpenter's Doric" which is Tuscan, provides simple elegance to gate posts and fences in many traditional garden contexts.
The Romans added two Orders of Architect one being Tuscan and the
other Composite. The Tuscan Order is a very elegantly simple style. In
proportion it resembles the Roman Doric column style yet it is
unadorned, plain consisting of a simple base and capital. This elegant
style today is the most popular version of all the orders and is beautifully
represented at Saint Peter’s Plaza in Rome.
Tuscan columns and capitals are noted for their simple beauty and
elegance. When used in true architectural proportions, the height of the
column is seven diameters, including the capital and base. The Temple of
Piety in Rome, Italy is a classic example of Tuscan columns. Tuscan
columns are always smooth without flutes.
Also noted for its simple elegance, the Tuscan base consists of one round
molded cushion with small bead on top, all resting on a square slab base.

St. Peter's of Rome