Top Ten World Architecture architecture- tallest thru history  
     
  For a more complete list, see Top Ten World Architecture  
1 Red Pyramid of Sneferu, Egypt c. 2600 BC  
  Tallest c. 2600 BC-c. 2570 BC 105 meters (345 ft)  

architect

unknown

location

Dahshur

date

 2600 BC (during the reign of Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu)

style

Ancient Egyptian

construction

Tallest c. 2600 BC-c. 2570 BC 105 meters (345 ft)

type

Temple Tomb, Mausoleum

The Red Pyramid, named for the light crimson hue of its exposed granite surface, is the largest of the three major pyramids located at the Dahshur necropolis, and the third largest Egyptian pyramid, after those of Khufu and Khafre at Giza. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest man-made structure in the world. It is also believed to be the world's first successful attempt at constructing a "true" smooth-sided pyramid.
The Red Pyramid was not always red. It used to be cased with white Tura limestone, but only a few of these now remain at the pyramid's base on the corner. During the Middle Ages much of white Tura limestone was taken for buildings in Cairo, revealing the reddish pinkish limestone.
 
     
2 The Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt c. 2570 BC  
  Tallest c. 2570 BC-c. AD 1300 146 meters (481 ft)  

architect

unknown

location

El Giza, Egypt

date

-2600 to -2480

style

Ancient Egyptian

construction

stone Height Roof 138.8 m, 455.2 ft (Formerly height: 146.6 m, 480.9 ft)

type

Tomb

The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom.

There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the 'Great Pyramid'.
 
     
3 Lincoln Cathedral, England 1092–1311  
  Tallest c. 1300-1549 160 meters (525 ft)  

architect

various

location

Lincoln, England

date

1092-1311

style

Central nave built in the Early English Gothic style. The chapels next to the Angel Choir were built in the Perpendicular style, with an emphasis on strong vertical lines, which survive today in the window tracery and wall panelling. The west front is Norman.

construction

Lincoln Cathedral was the world's tallest building from ~1300 to 1549.
Height  Antenna/Spire Original: 160 m (525 ft.) Current: 82.6 m (271 ft.)

type

Church

Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. Mary's Cathedral) is a historic cathedral in Lincoln in England and seat of the Diocese of Lincoln in the Church of England. It was the tallest building in the world for over 200 years (1300-1549), but the central spire collapsed in the sixteenth century and was not rebuilt. It is highly regarded by architectural scholars; the eminent Victorian writer John Ruskin declared, "I have always held... that the cathedral of Lincoln is out and out the most precious piece of architecture in the British Isles and roughly speaking worth any two other cathedrals we have."
 
     
4 St. Olaf's Church, Tallinn, Estonia 1438–1519  
  Tallest 1549-1625 159 meters (522 ft)  
     
     
5 St. Mary's Church, Stralsund , Germany 1384–1478  
Tallest 1625-1647 151 meters (495 ft)

architect

various

location

Stralsund, northern Germany

date

1384

style

Hanseatic Brick Gothic

construction

World's tallest structure 1625—1647. The present 104 metre polygonal spire dates from 1708.

type

Church

St. Mary’s was first mentioned in 1298 as a parish church in the New Town. It attained its present form between 1384 and 1478. The imposing westwork, built from 1416, is unparalleled in the architecture of the time. Until the 1647 fire, the tower was 151 metres high. The present 104 metre polygonal spire dates from 1708. St. Mary’s Church is the youngest Gothic brick basilica in northern Europe. It has a polygonal ambulatory with radiating chapels. An unusual feature is the triple nave transept.. The interior dimensions of the building are impressive. It is 96 metres long, 41 metres wide, and the nave is 32.95 metres high. It is thus the second largest brick church in the Hanseatic area after St. Mary’s in Gdansk. Little remains of the original interior elements. The most precious possession of the church is the Baroque organ, the last work of the Lübeck organ builder Friedrich Stellwagen, created in 1659. Under good weather conditions, the viewing deck in the church tower, 366 steps high, affords a unique panorama of the city, that includes the islands of Rügen and Hiddensee, and the Baltic Sea.
 
     
6 Strasbourg Cathedral, France 1439  
  Tallest 1647-1874 142 meters (469 ft)  
     
     
7 St. Nikolaikirche, Hamburg, Germany 1846–1874  
  Tallest 1874-1876 147 meters (483 ft)  

architect

George Gilbert Scott

location

Willy-Brandt-Straße (formerly Ost-West-Straße) Hamburg, Germany

date

Constructed 1846-1874

style

Gothic Revival

construction

Ruined. only tower and spire survived. St. Nikolai was the world's tallest building from 1874 to 1876.
Height Antenna/Spire 147 m (482 ft.)

type

Church  War memorial

The Gothic Revival St. Nikolai's Church (German: St.-Nikolai-Kirche) was formerly one of the five Lutheran Hauptkirchen (main churches) in the city of Hamburg. It is now in ruins, serving as a memorial and an important architectural landmark. When Hamburgers mention the "Nikolaikirche", it is generally to this church that is referred, and not the new Hauptkirche of St. Nikolai which is located in the Harvestehude district.

The church was the tallest building in the world from 1874 to 1876 and is still the second tallest building in Hamburg.
 
     
8 Cathédrale Notre Dame, Rouen, France 1202–1876  
  Tallest 1876-1880 151 meters (495 ft)  
     
     
9 Cologne Cathedral, Germany 1248–1880  
  Tallest 1880-1884 157 meters (515 ft)  

architect

 

location

Köln, Germany

date

1248-1880 (world's tallest building from 1880 to 1890)

style

Gothic

construction

Height  Antenna/Spire 157.4 m (516 ft.)

type

Church

The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, officially Hohe Domkirche St. Peter und Maria) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. It is dedicated to Saint Peter and the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The cathedral is a World Heritage Site, being one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany, and Cologne's most famous landmark, described by UNESCO as an "exceptional work of human creative genius".[1] Cologne Cathedral is one of the world's largest churches, being the largest Gothic church in Northern Europe. For four years, 1880-84, it was the tallest structure in the world, until the completion of the Washington Monument followed by the Eiffel Tower. It has the second-tallest church spires, only surpassed by the single spire of Ulm Cathedral, completed ten years later in 1890. Because of its enormous twin spires, it also presents the largest façade of any church in the world.
 
     
10 Washington Monument, United States 1884  
  Tallest 1884-1889 169 meters (555 ft)  

architect

Robert Mills

location

Washington, DC

date

1884

style

NeoClassical

construction

Stone (Limestone clad)

type

Monument

The Washington Monument is a large, white-colored obelisk at the west end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. It is a United States Presidential Memorial constructed for George Washington.

The monument is among the world's tallest masonry structures, standing 555 feet (169.29 m) in height and made of marble, granite, and sandstone. It was designed by Robert Mills, a prominent American architect of the 1840s. The actual construction of the monument began in 1848 but was not completed until 1884, almost 30 years after the architect's death. This hiatus in construction was because of a lack of funds and the intervention of the American Civil War. A difference in shading of the marble, visible approximately 150 feet (45 m) up, clearly delineates the initial construction from its resumption in 1876.

Its cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1848; the capstone was set on December 6, 1884, and the completed monument was dedicated on February 21, 1885. It officially opened to the public on October 9, 1888. Upon completion, it became the world's tallest structure, a title it inherited from the Cologne Cathedral and held until 1889, when the Eiffel Tower was finished in Paris, France.

The Washington Monument reflection can be seen in the aptly named Reflecting Pool, a rectangular pool extending to the west, towards the Lincoln Memorial.
 
     
11 Eiffel Tower, Paris, France 1889  
  Tallest 1889-1930 300 meters (986 ft)  

architect

Gustave Eiffel

location

Avenue Gustave Eiffel, by the river Seine. Telephone 01-44-11-23-23 metro stations: (Trocadéro or Bir-Hakeim. RER: Champs-de-Mars - Tour-Eiffel (C) )

date

1887 to 1889

style

structural expressionist Victorian Industrial

construction

steel 300 m (985 ft) tall.

type

tower built for 1889 World Exposition Monument

The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought about a new trend: the use of metallurgy in construction. Because of this, the engineer's role became increasingly important, in some cases melding with or rivaling that of the architect. The Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris, and reigned for 40 years as the tallest in the world.
 
     
12 Chrysler Building, New York, United States 1928–1930  
  Tallest 1930-1931 319 meters (1,046 ft)  

architect

William Van Alen

location

405 Lexington Avenue at 42nd Street 

date

1928-1930

style

Art Deco  

construction

77 floors, 319.5m (1048 feet) high, 29961 tons of steel, 3,826,000 bricks, near 5000 windows. Cost: $ 20,000,000
The building is clad in white brick and dark gray brickwork is used as horizontal decoration to enhance the window rows. The eccentric crescent-shaped steps of the spire (spire scaffolding) were made of stainless steel (or rather, similar nirosta chrome-nickel steel) as a stylized sunburst motif, and underneath it steel gargoyles, depicting American eagles (image), stare over the city. Sculptures modeled after Chrysler automobile radiator caps (image) decorate the lower setbacks, along with ornaments of car wheels. 

The three stories high, upwards tapering entrance lobby has a triangular form, with entrances from three sides, Lexington Avenue, 42nd and 43rd Streets. The lobby is lavishly decorated with Red Moroccan marble walls, sienna-coloured floor and onyx, blue marble and steel in Art Deco compositions. The ceiling murals, painted by Edward Trumbull, praise the modern-day technical progress -- and of course the building itself and its builders at work. The lobby was refurbished in 1978 by JCS Design Assocs. and Joseph Pell Lombardi. 

type

Office Building
  Click here for Chrysler Building gallery

The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. Standing at 319 m (1,047 ft) high,[1] it was briefly the world's tallest building before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. However, the Chrysler Building remains the world's tallest brick building.[2][3] After the destruction of the World Trade Center, it was again the second tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised on the 365.8 m (1,200 ft) Bank of America building, pushing the Chrysler Building into third position. In addition, the New York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly tied with the Chrysler Building in height, making the two buildings tied for 3rd position.[4] Despite the change in tallness ranking in New York, the Chrysler Building is still a classic example of Art Deco architecture and considered by many, at least among contemporary architects, to be one of the finest buildings in New York City.
 
     
13 Empire State Building, New York, United States 1930–1931  
  Tallest 1931-1967 381 meters (1,250 ft)  

architect

Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, William F. Lamb as chief designer

location

350 Fifth Ave., bet. W33 and W34

date

1930-1931

style

Art Deco

construction

Steel frame 102 floors, 1252 feet, 381 meters high. Effective use of setbacks to emphasize tower.
The building is clad in Indiana limestone and granite, with the mullions lined in shiny aluminium. There are in all 6,500 windows, with spandrels sandblasted to blend their tone to that of the windows, visually creating the vertical striping on the facade. The windows and spandrels are also flush with the limestone facing, an aesthetic and economic decision.

type

Office Building
  Click here for an Empire State Building gallery
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. Its name is derived from the nickname for the state of New York. It stood as the world's tallest building for more than forty years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World Trade Center's North Tower was completed in 1972. Following the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, the Empire State Building became for the second time, the tallest building in New York City.
The Empire State Building has been named by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate.[5] It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[3][6][7] In 2007, it was ranked number one on the List of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. The building is owned by Harold Helmsley's company and managed by its management/leasing division Helmsley-Spear.
 
     
14 Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia 1963–1967  
  Tallest 1967-1975 537 meters (1,762 ft)  
     
     
15 CN Tower, Toronto, Canada 1973–1976  
  Tallest 1975-2007 553 meters (1,815 ft)  
     
     
16 Burj Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2004–2008  
  Tallest 2007-present 800 meters (2,625 ft)  

architect

Architect Skidmore, Owings and Merrill

location

located at the "First Interchange" (aka "Defence Roundabout") along Sheikh Zayed Road at Doha Street.

date

Groundbreaking 21 September 2004, Estimated completion 30 December 2008

style

Modern

construction

Height Antenna/Spire ~818 m (2,684 ft)
Floor count 164

type

Armani Hotel  (the first of its kind) will occupy the lower 37 floors.
Floors 45 through 108 will have 700 private apartments
Corporate offices and suites will fill most of the remaining floors, except for a 123rd floor lobby and 124th floor (about 440 metres (1,444 ft)) indoor/outdoor observation deck.

Burj Dubai (Arabic: برج دبي "Dubai Tower") is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. When it is completed in late 2008, it is predicted to be the tallest man-made structure in the world, as well as the tallest building by any measure. Scheduled for occupancy in September 2009, the building is part of a 2 km² (0.8 sq mi) development called 'Downtown Burj Dubai' and is located at the "First Interchange" (aka "Defence Roundabout") along Sheikh Zayed Road at Doha Street.
The building is being built mainly by a South Korean company Samsung, along with the Belgian company Besix and the UAE company Arabtec. It was designed by American Adrian Smith before he left Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP (SOM) of Chicago to start his own independent practice, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture in October 2006. However, SOM continues to lead the architectural, structural engineering and mechanical engineering of Burj Dubai. The total budget for the Burj Dubai project is about $4.1 billion US and for the entire new 'Downtown Burj Dubai', $20 billion US.