Top Ten World Architecture top ten architecture past 100 years  
     
  For a more complete list, see Top Ten World Architecture  
1 1905 to 1910 : Casa Mila Barcelona  

architect

Antoni Gaudi

location

Barcelona

date

1905 to 1910

style

Art Nouveau 

construction

concrete

type

House

Spanish architect Antoni Gaudi defied rigid geometry when he designed Casa Mila Barcelona. Casa Mila Barcelona is an apartment building with a fanciful aura. Wavy walls seem to undulate and a comical array of chimney stacks dance across the roof. "The straight line belongs to men, the curved one to God," Gaudi asserted.
 
     
2 1913 : Grand Central Terminal, New York  

architect

Reed & Stem, Warren & Wetmore 

location

42nd Street and 3rd Ave.

date

1903-1913

style

Beaux-Arts

construction

stone facade

type

Utility

Grand Central Terminal (GCT, often inaccurately called Grand Central Station) is a Terminal station at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. Built by and named for the New York Central Railroad in the heyday of American long-distance passenger trains, it is the largest train station in the world by number of platforms:[3] 44, with 67 tracks along them. They are on two levels, both below ground, with 41 tracks on the upper level and 26 on the lower.

It serves commuters traveling on the Metro-North Railroad to Westchester, Putnam, and Dutchess counties in New York State, and Fairfield and New Haven counties in Connecticut.

Although it has been properly called "Grand Central Terminal" since 1913, many people continue to refer to it as "Grand Central Station". Technically, that is the name of the nearby post office, as well as the name of a previous rail station on the site.
 
     
3 1930 : The Chrysler Building, New York  

architect

William Van Alen

location

405 Lexington Avenue at 42nd Street 

date

1928-1930

style

Art Deco  

construction

77 floors, 319.5m (1048 feet) high, 29961 tons of steel, 3,826,000 bricks, near 5000 windows. Cost: $ 20,000,000
The building is clad in white brick and dark gray brickwork is used as horizontal decoration to enhance the window rows. The eccentric crescent-shaped steps of the spire (spire scaffolding) were made of stainless steel (or rather, similar nirosta chrome-nickel steel) as a stylized sunburst motif, and underneath it steel gargoyles, depicting American eagles (image), stare over the city. Sculptures modeled after Chrysler automobile radiator caps (image) decorate the lower setbacks, along with ornaments of car wheels. 

The three stories high, upwards tapering entrance lobby has a triangular form, with entrances from three sides, Lexington Avenue, 42nd and 43rd Streets. The lobby is lavishly decorated with Red Moroccan marble walls, sienna-coloured floor and onyx, blue marble and steel in Art Deco compositions. The ceiling murals, painted by Edward Trumbull, praise the modern-day technical progress -- and of course the building itself and its builders at work. The lobby was refurbished in 1978 by JCS Design Assocs. and Joseph Pell Lombardi. 

type

Office Building
  Click here for Chrysler Building gallery

The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. Standing at 319 m (1,047 ft) high,[1] it was briefly the world's tallest building before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. However, the Chrysler Building remains the world's tallest brick building.[2][3] After the destruction of the World Trade Center, it was again the second tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised on the 365.8 m (1,200 ft) Bank of America building, pushing the Chrysler Building into third position. In addition, the New York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly tied with the Chrysler Building in height, making the two buildings tied for 3rd position.[4] Despite the change in tallness ranking in New York, the Chrysler Building is still a classic example of Art Deco architecture and considered by many, at least among contemporary architects, to be one of the finest buildings in New York City.
 
     
4 1931 : Empire State Building, New York  

architect

Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, William F. Lamb as chief designer

location

350 Fifth Ave., bet. W33 and W34

date

1930-1931

style

Art Deco

construction

Steel frame 102 floors, 1252 feet, 381 meters high. Effective use of setbacks to emphasize tower.
The building is clad in Indiana limestone and granite, with the mullions lined in shiny aluminium. There are in all 6,500 windows, with spandrels sandblasted to blend their tone to that of the windows, visually creating the vertical striping on the facade. The windows and spandrels are also flush with the limestone facing, an aesthetic and economic decision.

type

Office Building
  Click here for an Empire State Building gallery
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. Its name is derived from the nickname for the state of New York. It stood as the world's tallest building for more than forty years, from its completion in 1931 until construction of the World Trade Center's North Tower was completed in 1972. Following the destruction of the World Trade Center in 2001, the Empire State Building became for the second time, the tallest building in New York City.
The Empire State Building has been named by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate.[5] It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[3][6][7] In 2007, it was ranked number one on the List of America's Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. The building is owned by Harold Helmsley's company and managed by its management/leasing division Helmsley-Spear.
 
     
5 1935 : Kaufmann Residence (Fallingwater) , Pennsylvania, USA  

architect

Frank Lloyd Wright

location

 Bear Run, PA

date

1935

style

Prairie School

construction

cantilevered reinforced concrete

type

House

Frank Lloyd Wright fooled gravity when he designed Fallingwater. What seems to be a loose pile of concrete slabs threatens to topple from its cliff. The house is not really precarious, but visitors are still awed by the improbable structure.
 
     
6 1936 - 1939 : Johnson Wax Administration Building, Racine, WI  

architect

Frank Lloyd Wright

location

Racine, WI

date

1936-39

style

Art Moderne

construction

Brick

type

Office Building

Frank Lloyd Wright redefined space with the Johnson Wax Building in Racine, Wisconsin. Inside the Johnson Wax Building, opaque layers of glass tubes admit light and create the illusion of openness. "Interior space comes free," Wright said of his masterpiece. Wright also designed the original furniture for the building. Some chairs had only three legs, and would tip over if a forgetful secretary did not sit with correct posture.
 
     
7 1946 - 1950 : Farnsworth house, Plano, IL  

architect

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

location

Plano, IL

date

1945-51 (W:1946-50)

style

Early Modern

construction

steel and glass

type

House

Hovering in a green landscape, the Farnsworth House by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is often celebrated as his most perfect expression of the International Style. All the exterior walls are glass.
 
     
8 1957 - 1973 : Sydney Opera House , Australia  
ROC006-opera-house.jpg (60562 bytes)

architect

1957-63 Joern Utzon (Stage 1) 
1963-73 (NSWGA), Hall Todd & Littlemore 
(Stage 2) - interiors and glass walls) 
Engineers: Ove Arup & Partners 

location

Bennelong Point (on the site previously)

date

1957-73

style

Late 20th-Century Structuralist

construction

reinforced concrete, white tiles 65 m 213 ft 

type

Theater

Jorn Utzon broke the rules with his modern expressionist Sidney Opera House in Australia. Overlooking the harbor, the Opera House is a freestanding sculpture of spherical roofs and curved shapes. A scandalous political affair forced architect John Utzon to withdraw from the project in 1966. The Opera house was completed by other designers under the direction of Peter Hall.
 
     
9 1958 : The Seagram Building , New York  

architect

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson (interiors) and Kahn & Jacobs

location

375 Park Ave.  (at 53rd Street)

date

1958

style

International Style II  

construction

The plan of the building is based on a 8.50 m grid, pursued to unprecedented Miesian accuracy. The elevator core is placed to the back of the building, forming the protruding, windowless back wall of the tower. 
Set on bronze-clad pillars, the 38-storey facade consists of alternating bands of bronze plating and "whisky brown"-tinted glass (the material and colour choices were a result of Bronfman's insistance of having a warmer-toned facade than in the Lake Shore Drive Apts). The building was, notably, the first with floor-to-ceiling windows, making the wall a true curtain of glass, as foreseen by the visionaries of Modern Movement, like Mies himself. Between the windows, there are vertical decorative bronze I-profiled beams attached to the mullions to emphasize the vertical rise of the facade. Van der Rohe personally stated that this was his only building in the United States which met exactly his European standards. 

type

Office Building


Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson rejected "bourgeois" ornamentation when they designed the Seagram Building in New York City. A shimmering tower of glass and bronze, the Seagram Building is both classical and stark. Metallic beams emphasize the height of the 38-story skyscraper, while a base of granite pillars leads to horizontal bands of bronze plating and bronze-tinted glass.
 
     
10 1970 - 1977 : World Trade Center, New York (Demolished by terrorist attacks)  

architect

Minoru Yamasaki

location

Church to West Streets, Liberty to Vesey Streets   

date

1966-70 (Destroyed 2001).

style

International Style II

construction

 

type

Office Building


Designed by Minoru Yamasaki, New York's World Trade consisted of two 110-story buildings (known as the "Twin Towers") and five smaller buildings. Soaring above the New York skyline, the Twin Towers were among the tallest buildings in the world. When the buildings were constructed, their design was often criticized, but in the aftermath of their destruction, they became a valuable part of America's cultural heritage.