Top Ten World Architecture top ten world architecture  
     
  For a more complete list, see Top Ten World Architecture  
1 The Great Pyramids at Giza  

architect

unknown

location

El Giza, Egypt

date

-2600 to -2480

style

Ancient Egyptian

construction

stone Height Roof 138.8 m, 455.2 ft (Formerly height: 146.6 m, 480.9 ft)

type

Tomb
The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many different shapes and sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom.
There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The most well-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the 'Great Pyramid'.
 
     
2 The Acropolis  

architect

various

location

Athens, Greece.

date

5th century BC

style

Doric

construction

Stone

type

Temple Government
The Acropolis of Athens is the best known acropolis (high city, The "Sacred Rock) in Greece. Although there are many other acropolises in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as The Acropolis without qualification. The Acropolis is a flat-topped rock which rises 150 m (512 ft) above sea level in the city of Athens, Greece. It was also known as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, Kekrops or Cecrops, the first Athenian king.
 
     
3 The Taj Mahal  

architect

Ustad Isa

location

Agra 

date

1640s

style

Islamic Mughal

construction

marble

type

Mosque
The Tāj Mahal (Hindi: ताज महल) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. The Mughal Emperor Shāh Jahān commissioned it as a mausoleum for his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Construction began in 1632 and was completed in 1648. Some dispute surrounds the question of who designed the Taj; it is clear a team of designers and craftsmen were responsible for the design, with Ustad Isa considered the most likely candidate as the principal designer.
The Taj Mahal (sometimes called "the Taj") is generally considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements of Persian, Indian and Islamic architecture. While the white domed marble mausoleum is the most familiar part of the monument, the Taj Mahal is actually an integrated complex of structures. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 when it was described as a "universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".
 
     
4 The Hagia Sofia  

architect

Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles

location

Istanbul

date

537. The dome was ruined by the great earthquake of 989, rebuilt by the Armenian architect Tirdat.

style

Islamic Ottoman Turkish  Byzantine

construction

covered by a central dome with a diameter of 31 meters (102 feet) and 56 meters high, slightly smaller than the Pantheon's

type

Mosque
Hagia Sophia, (the Church of) Holy Wisdom, now known as the Ayasofya Museum, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque in 1453 by the Turks, and converted into a museum in 1935. It is located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is traditionally considered one of the great buildings in history. Its conquest by the Ottomans at the fall of Constantinople is considered one of the great tragedies of Christianity by the Greek Orthodox faithful.
The name comes from the Greek name Ἁγία Σοφία, a contraction of Ναός τῆς Ἁγίας τοῦ Θεοῦ Σοφίας, meaning "Church of the Holy Wisdom of God". It is also known as Sancta Sophia in Latin and Ayasofya in Turkish. Although it is sometimes called "Saint Sophia" in English, it is not named after a saint named Sophia — the Greek word sofia means "wisdom."
 
     
5 The Roman Coliseum  

architect

unknown 

location

Rome, Italy

date

70 to 82

style

Ancient Roman, Classical, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian engaged columns, Corinthian pilasters

construction

masonry, cut stone

type

amphitheater Theater
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium), is the largest amphitheatre built in the Roman empire. Originally capable of seating 50,000 spectators, it was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built in the 70s AD by Jewish slaves captured at the end of the Great Jewish Revolt.
The Colosseum is located just east of the Roman Forum.
 
     
6 The Great Wall  

architect

unknown

location

Badaling, 50 miles northwest of Beijing city

date

mid-6th century

style

Ming Dynasty

construction

stone

type

protective wall
The Great Wall (Traditional Chinese: 長城; Simplified Chinese: 长城; pinyin: Chángchén) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built between 5th century BC and the 17th century to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire during the rule of successive dynasties. The most recent set of fortifications dates from the Ming Dynasty, and its longest section stretches 6,352 km (3,948 miles) from Shanhai Pass in the east to Lop Nur in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia.[1] It is generally considered to be the longest man-made structure on earth.
 
     
7 Petra, Jordan  

architect

unknown

location

Jordan

date

c. 100 AD

style

Graeco-Roman

construction

Stone

type

Outdoor space
Petra (from πέτρα "petra", rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, al-Bitrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many stone structures carved into the rock. The long-hidden site was revealed to the Western world by the Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812. It famous description "a rose-red city half as old as time" is the final line of a sonnet by the minor Victorian poet John William Burgon, which won the Newdigate Prize for poetry, given at Oxford, 1845. Burgon had not actually visited Petra, which remained inaccessible to all but the most intrepid Europeans, guided by local guides with armed escorts, until after World War I.
 
     
8 Angkor Wat  

architect

unknown

location

near Siem Riep (near the Thai border), Cambodia

date

early 12th century

style

classical style of Khmer architecture—the Angkor Wat style

construction

Stone

type

Buddhist Temple
Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for king Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. The largest and best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre—first Hindu, then Buddhist—since its foundation. The temple is the epitome of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors. Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple mountain and the later galleried temples. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the gods in Hindu mythology: within a moat and an outer wall 3.6 km (2.2 miles) long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. As well as for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, the temple is admired for its extensive bas-reliefs and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls.
 
     
9 Machu Picchu, Peru  

architect

unknown

location

Machu Picchu is 70 kilometers northwest of Cusco, Peru, on the crest of the mountain Machu Picchu, located about 2,350 meters above sea level.

date

1440

style

Incan

construction

ocated at 2,430 m (7,970 ft)[1] on a mountain ridge  Stone. polished dry-stone walls of regular shape

type

Outdoor space
Machu Picchu (Quechua: Old Peak; sometimes called the "Lost City of the Incas") is a well-preserved pre-Columbian Inca ruin located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft)[1] on a mountain ridge. Machu Picchu is located above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. Forgotten for centuries by the outside world, although not by locals, it was brought back to international attention by archaeologist Hiram Bingham who rediscovered it in 1911, and wrote a best-selling work about it. Peru is pursuing legal efforts to retrieve thousands of artifacts that Bingham removed from the site.
 
     
10 The Statue of Liberty  

architect

Sculptor: Auguste Frederic Bartholdi, Structural Engineer: Gustave Eiffel
pedestal Richard Morris Hunt

location

Liberty Island, New York Harbor.

date

1884

style

Neoclassical realistic sculpture

construction

iron frame, copper cladding

type

monumental statue and observation tower
  Click here for Statue of Liberty gallery
Liberty Enlightening the World (French: La liberté éclairant le monde), known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté), is a large statue that was presented to the United States by France in 1886. It stands at Liberty Island, New York in New York Harbor as a welcome to all visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans. The copper patina-clad statue, dedicated on October 28, 1886, commemorates the centennial of the United States and is a gesture of friendship from France to America. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi sculpted the statue and obtained a U.S. patent useful for raising construction funds through the sale of miniatures. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) engineered the internal structure. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was responsible for the choice of copper in the statue's construction and adoption of the repoussé technique.