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Neoclassicism / Classical Revival Architecture 1900-1920

Neoclassical architecture    
  1. Lincoln, IL. County courthouse. 2. Las Vegas, NM. Bank building.
3. University of Illinois campus, Urbana, IL. 4. Lewistown, PA. 5. Roswell, NM. Chavez county courthouse.
6. Lewistown, PA. The Embassy Theater, c.1926 7. Bisbee/Warren, AZ. House with Neoclassical portico 8. Madison, IN. City Hall.
9. Williams, AZ. AT&SF Depot (with Harvey House). Renovated and used today by the revived Grand Canyon Railway. 10. Fresno, CA. Theater. 11. Kingman, AZ. County Courthouse.
12. Urbana, IL. University of Illinois campus. Davenport Hall, home of the Department of Geography.  San Antonio, TX. Monte Vista Historic District neighborhood. This seemed to be a very popular style during the 1920s, perhaps given San Antonio's southern cultural roots.  
     
Above photos copyright Dr. Tom Paradis (special thanks to) http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~twp/architecture/neoclassical/
 
Neoclassicism / Classical Revival
1900-1920

An American architectural movement based on the use of pure Roman and Greek forms, mainly in England and the U.S. in the early 20th cent.

A substyle is the Temple Front (facades derived from the temples of Greek and Roman antiquity).

The later, more refined stage of the Beaux-Arts tradition (1890-1920) influenced the last phase (1900-1920) of the classical revival in the United States.

Federal government buildings of the first half of the 20th century, e.g., the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C., owed much to the Beaux-Arts interpretation of classical design. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, commissions for public buildings and grand houses of industrial moguls went to architects trained in the Beaux-Arts tradition. These architects generally produced academic designs based on classical or Renaissance precedents.

One can distinguish between
-Neoclassicism (European) Late18th and 19th centuries
-Classical Revival /Jeffersonian Classicism / Roman Classicism 1790-1830
-Greek Revival 1820-1860
-Beaux Arts Classical Revival 1876 to 1930
-Neoclassicism / Classical Revival (American) 1900-1920

Features:
Symmetrically arranged buildings
Simple geometric forms
Monumental proportions
Colossal pedimented porticos flanked by a series of pilasters
Arch was not used
Enriched moldings are rare
Smooth surfaces
When windows are employed, they are large single-light sashes
Attic stories and parapets are popular
Statuary along the roof lines is never employed
 
INTRODUCTION TO PERIOD STYLES:
During the late 1800s, European-trained architects designed highstyle period houses for the wealthy. Each period style identifies specifically with an architecture of an earlier period and place: either early American or European precedents. Several popular period styles are included on these web sites, though other, less common period styles also appeared. During this time (mostly between 1900 and 1929), accuracy of styles became important once again, unlike Queen Anne style, which borrowed from a variety of sources. Most Important, period styles look to the past for inspiration. The trend toward period architecture gained momentum from the 1893 Chicago World's Fair, the Columbian Exposition, where historical interpretations of European styles were encouraged. Simultaneous to the rise of period-style architecture, the modern era saw its beginnings with architects who were instead looking to the future, not the past, with more progressive, modernist styles. Thus defines the eclectic movement of the early 20th century, which consisted of a simultaneous and perhaps competing interest in both modern and historic architectural traditions.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND FEATURES:
Neoclassical (or Neoclassical Revival) became a dominant style for domestic buildings nationwide between 1900-1940s. It was directly inspired by the Beaux-Arts style and the Columbian Exposition (Chicago World's Fair, 1893). The style tends to include the features of: classical symmetry, full-height porch with columns and temple front, and various classical ornament such as dentil cornices. Basically, this is the revival of the Greek Revival style that dominated the first half of the 19th century..
Link- Special thanks to  http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~twp/architecture/neoclassical/