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Adam style

Kedleston Hall Derbyshire Federal architectural style The Davenport House, Savannah, GA (ca. 1820)
 
Approximate year Adam style was introduced in U.S. - 1800

Named after the Adam brothers of England who created their own Palladian-influenced style, Adam houses are part of the overall Federal architectural style. They are boxlike and delicate and usually symmetrical. It is common for them to have hip roofs with balanced chimneys on both sides to dispense sparks. Windows are narrow with slender mullions. Delicately detailed palladian windows are a common indicator of an Adam house, as in our Longmeadow example.
 
The Adam style (or Adamesque) is a style of neoclassical architecture and design as practised by Scottish architect Robert Adam (1728- 1792) and his brothers. A book of engraved designs made the "Adam" repertory available throughout Europe. A parallel development of this early phase of neoclassical design is French "Louis XVI style.

Robert Adam's main rivals were James Wyatt, whose many designs for furniture were less known outside the wide circle of his patrons, because he never published a book of engravings, and Sir William Chambers, who designed fewer furnishings for his interiors, preferring to work with able cabinet-makers like John Linnell, Thomas Chippendale and Ince and Mayhew. So many able designers were working in this style in London from ca. 1770, that the style is currently more usually termed Early Neoclassical.

It is typical of Adam style to combine decorative neo-Gothic details into the classical framework. So-called "Egyptian" and "Etruscan" design motifs were minor features.

The "Adam style" is identified with:
Roman style decorative motifs such as framed medallions, vases, urns and tripods, arabesque vine scrolls, sphinxes and gryphons.
Flat grotesque panels
Pilasters
Painted ornaments such as swags and ribbons
Complex color schemes

The Adam style found its niche from the late 1760s in upper-class residences in 18th century England, Scotland, Russia where it was introduced by Scottish architect Charles Cameron, and post-Revolutionary War United States (where it became known as Federal style and took on a variation of its own). The style was superseded from the end of the 1780s by a more massive and self-consciously archeological style, connected with the First French Empire.

A revived "Adams" style, initiated by a spectacular marquetry cabinet by Wright & Mansfield exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1867, competed with revived Sheraton and Hepplewhite styles that lost momentum after World War I.
Adam's design for the Etruscan Dressing Room, Osterley Park, 1773-74; the painted ornaments on the walls and ceilings are the work of Pietro Maria Borgnis, working for Adam.