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Chicago School / Commercial Style Architecture
|Chicago School window grid||Louis Sullivan's Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building||Auditorium Building- Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan (1886–90).|
|Reliance Building||Gage Group Buildings||Chicago Building|
|Brooks Building||Heyworth Building||Leiter I Building|
|Leiter II Building||Marquette Building||Monadnock Block|
|Montauk Building||Rookery Building||Wainwright Building, by Louis H. Sullivan, at St. Louis, Missouri, 1890 to 1891.|
|Oliver Building||Chapin and Gore Building||Fisher Building|
|During the 1880's and '90s, Chicago architects
designed buildings with exteriors clearly expressing their innovative
steel-frame construction. These "Chicago School" buildings have been praised
as important precursors to 20th-century steel-and-glass skyscrapers. In
Chicago, most examples of the style are office buildings in the Loop.
Common characteristics are:
-masonry cladding, usually terra cotta, clearly emphasizing the steel framing
-distinctive three-part windows, with large central fixed panes flanked by smaller double-hung sash windows
-minimal use of ornament
|Chicago school (architecture)
Chicago's architecture is famous throughout the world and one style is referred to as the Chicago School. The style is also known as Commercial style. In the history of architecture, the Chicago School was a school of architects active in Chicago at the turn of the 20th century. They were among the first to promote the new technologies of steel-frame construction in commercial buildings, and developed a spatial aesthetic which co-evolved with, and then came to influence, parallel developments in European Modernism. A "Second Chicago School" later emerged in the 1960s and 1970s which pioneered new structural systems such as the tube-frame structure.
First Chicago School
While the term "Chicago School" is widely used to describe buildings in the city during the 1880s and 1890s, this term has been disputed by scholars, in particular in reaction to Carl Condit's 1952 book The Chicago School of Architecture. Historians such as H. Allen Brooks, Winston Weisman and Daniel Bluestone have pointed out that the phrase suggests a unified set of aesthetic or conceptual precepts, when, in fact, Chicago buildings of the era displayed a wide variety of styles and techniques. Other scholars have noted that the phrase implies that Chicago was the only locus of technical or aesthetic innovation in skyscraper design, when in fact developments in Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Cincinnati often paralleled or preceded similar work in Chicago. Contemporary publications used the phrase "Commercial Style" to describe the innovative tall buildings of the era rather than proposing any sort of unified "school".
Some of the distinguishing features of the Chicago School are the use of steel-frame buildings with masonry cladding (usually terra cotta), allowing large plate-glass window areas and the use of limited amounts of exterior ornament. Sometimes elements of neoclassical architecture are used in Chicago School skyscrapers. Many Chicago School skyscrapers contain the three parts of a classical column. The first floor functions as the base, the middle stories, usually with little ornamental detail, act as the shaft of the column, and the last floor or so represent the capital, with more ornamental detail and capped with a cornice.
The "Chicago window" originated in this school. It is a three-part window consisting of a large fixed center panel flanked by two smaller double-hung sash windows. The arrangement of windows on the facade typically creates a grid pattern, with some projecting out from the facade forming bay windows. The Chicago window combined the functions of light-gathering and natural ventilation; a single central pane was usually fixed, while the two surrounding panes were operable. These windows were often deployed in bays, known as oriel windows, that projected out over the street.
Architects whose names are associated with the Chicago School include Henry Hobson Richardson, Dankmar Adler, Daniel Burnham, William Holabird, William LeBaron Jenney, Martin Roche, John Root, Solon S. Beman, and Louis Sullivan. Frank Lloyd Wright started in the firm of Adler and Sullivan but created his own Prairie Style of architecture. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who had run the Bauhaus in Germany before coming to Chicago, is sometimes credited with the rise of a second "Chicago school" between 1939 and 1975.
The Home Insurance Building, which some regarded as the first skyscraper in the world, was built in Chicago in 1885 and was demolished in 1931.
Second Chicago School
In the 1960s, a "Second Chicago School" emerged, largely due to the ideas of structural engineer Fazlur Khan. He introduced a new structural system of framed tubes in skyscraper design and construction. The Bangladeshi engineer Fazlur Khan defined the framed tube structure as "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation." Closely spaced interconnected exterior columns form the tube. Horizontal loads, for example wind, are supported by the structure as a whole. About half the exterior surface is available for windows. Framed tubes allow fewer interior columns, and so create more usable floor space. Where larger openings like garage doors are required, the tube frame must be interrupted, with transfer girders used to maintain structural integrity.
The first building to apply the tube-frame construction was the DeWitt-Chestnut apartment building which Khan designed and was completed in Chicago by 1963. This laid the foundations for the tube structures of many other later skyscrapers, including his own John Hancock Centre and Sears Tower, and can been seen in the construction of the World Trade Center, Petronas Towers, Jin Mao Building, and most other supertall skyscrapers since the 1960s.
Today, there are different styles of architecture all throughout the city, such as the Chicago School, neo-classical, art deco, modern, and postmodern.
^ "Commercial style definition". Dictionary of Wisconsin History. Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
^ a b Billington, David P. (1985), The Tower and the Bridge: The New Art of Structural Engineering, Princeton University Press, pp. 234-5, ISBN 069102393X
^ "Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers". Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
^ Alfred Swenson & Pao-Chi Chang (2008). "building construction". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2008-12-09.
^ Ali, Mir M. (2001), "Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers: from Ingalls to Jin mao", Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering 1 (1): 2-14, retrieved on 30 November 2008