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  Essential Architecture-  siena

Siena Cathedral Duomo di Siena

architect

lantern- Gian Lorenzo Bernini

location

Siena, Italy

date

1215 - 1263

style

Italian Rennaisance

construction

masonry

type

Church
 
The Cathedral itself was originally designed and completed between 1215 and 1263 on the site of an earlier structure. It has the form of a Latin cross with a slightly projecting transept, a dome and a bell tower. The dome is octogonally based and only becomes circular above the supporting columns. The lantern, atop the dome, was added by the famous Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The nave is separated from the two aisles by semicircular arches. The exterior and interior are constructed of striped white and greenish-black marble, with addition of red marble on the facade. Black and white are the symbolic colors of Siena, derived from the black and white horses of the legendary city's founders Senius and Aschius.

facade, bell tower and column with the she-wolf.

Early history
The origins of the first structure are obscure and shrouded in the mist of legends. There was a 9th c. church with bishop's palace at the present location. In December 1058 a synod was held in this church resulting in the election of pope Nicholas II and the deposition of the antipope Benedict X.

In 1196 the Cathedral Masons’ Guild, the Opera di Santa Maria, was put in charge of the construction of a new cathedral. By 1215 there were already daily masses in the new church. There are records from 1226 on of the transport of black and white marble, probably for the construction of the facade and the bell tower. The vaults and the transept were constructed in 1259-1260. In 1259 Manuello di Ranieri and his son Parri carved some wooden choir stalls, which were replaced about 100 years later and have now disappeared. In 1264, Rosso Padellaio was paid for the copper sphere on top of the dome.

A second massive addition, was planned in 1339. It would have more than doubled the size of the structure by means of an entirely new nave and two aisles perpendicular to the side of the church. The construction was began under the direction of Giovanni d'Agostino, better known to us as a sculptor. Construction was halted by the Black Plague in 1348. Basic errors in the construction were already evident by then and the work was never resumed. The outer walls, remains of this extension, can now be seen to the south of the Duomo. The floor of the nave now serves as a parking lot and museum, and, though unfinished, are testament to Sienese power, ambition, and artistic achievement.

Underneath the choir of the Duomo, a narthex containing important late-thirteenth century frescoes (probably about 1280) was found and excavated in 1999-2003. The frescoes depict scenes from the Old Testament and the life of Christ. This was part of the entrance of an earlier church. But when the baptistry was built, this under-church was filled with rubble. The narthex is now open to the public

Facade

Duomo of Siena.

Duomo of Siena.

The facade of this cathedral was built in two stages. The lower part in polychrome marble was begun around 1284. It is built in Tuscan Gothic style by Giovanni Pisano, replete with gargoyles. Giovanni Pisano worked on the lower levels until 1296, when he suddenly left Siena. At that time, between 1270 and 1285, the nave of the church had been raised and a higher facade became necessary. Work at the facade continued for another fifteen years and was then stopped. Meanwhile in 1288, the rose window, a round glass-stained window set inside a square, was installed in the choir, based on designs by Duccio di Buoninsegna.

The three portals, surmounted by lunettes and Gothic pediments, were designed by Giovanni Pisano. The columns between the portals are richly decorated with acanthus scrolls, allegorical figures and biblical scenes.

Work on the upper part of the facade only resumed in 1376 under the direction of Giovanni di Cecco, working on a new elaborate design, inspired by the Orvieto Cathedral. It was to be erected much higher than foreseen, because the nave had, once again, been raised. The division of the upper part does not match the division of the lower part. The pinnacles of the upper part do not continue over the columns flanking the central portal. The weight of the elegant side towers was reduced by adding windows.

The statues of the lavish facade were sculpted by Giovanni Pisano and assistants. They represent prophets, philosophers and apostles. The half-length statues of the patriarchs in the niches around the rose window are the work of other sculptors. Almost all the sculptures on view are copies. The originals are kept in the "Crypt of the Statues" in the Cathedral Museum.

The bronze central door is recent and dates from 1958. It was made by Enrico Manfrini. The scenes on the door represent the Glorification of the Virgin. The three large mosaics on the gables of the facade were made in Venice in 1878. The large central mosaic, the Coronation of the Virgin, is the work of Luigi Mussini. The smaller mosaics on each side, Nativity of Jesus and Presentation of Mary in the Temple, ware made by Alessandro Franchi.

On the left corner pier of the facade, a 14th century inscription can be found, marking the grave of Giovanni Pisano. Next to the facade stands a column with the she-wolf breast-feeding Romulus and Remus, symbol of Siena (and also of the contrade Lupa). According to legend, Senius and Aschius, sons of Remus, founded Siena. They had stolen the statue of the she-wolf from the Apollo temple in Rome.

Interior

nave in the direction of the entrance.

nave in the direction of the entrance.

When one enters the cathedral, the pictorial effect of the black and white marble stripes on the walls and columns strikes the eye. Black and white are the colours of the civic coat of arms of Siena. The capitals of the columns in the front section of the nave are sculpted with allegorical busts and animals. The horizontal moulding around the nave and the presbetary contains 172 plaster busts from popes dating from the 15th and 16th c., starting with St. Peter and ending with Lucius III. The spandrels of the round arches below this cornice exhibit the busts of 36 emperors. The vaulted roof is decorated in blue with golden stars, replacing frescoes on the ceiling, while the formerets (half rib) and the tiercerons (secondary rib) are adorned with richly elaborated motifs.

The stained-glass round window in the choir was made in 1288 to the designs of Duccio. It is one of the earliest remaining examples of Italian stained glass. The round stained-glass window in the facade dates from 1549 and represents the Last Supper. It is the craftmanship of Pastorino de’ Pastorini.

The hexagonal dome is topped with a gilded lantern, like a golden sun. The trompe l'oeil coffers were painted in blue with golden stars in the late 15th c. The colonnade in the drum is adorned with images and statues of 42 patriarchs and prophets, painted in 1481 by Guidoccio Cozzarelli and Benvenuto di Giovanni. The eight stucco statues in the spandrels beneath the dome were sculpted in 1490 by Ventura di Giuliano and Bastiano di Francesco. Originally they were polychromed, but later, in 1704, gilded.

Next to the first two pillars there are two fonts, delightfully carved by Antonio Federighi in 1462-63. His basin for the Blessing of Holy Water was later transferred to the chapel of San Giovanni.

glass-stained window : Last Supper.
glass-stained window : Last Supper.

The marble high altar of the presbytery was built in 1532 by Baldassarre Peruzzi. The enormous bronze ciborium is the work of Lorenzo di Pietro (“Vecchietta”) (1467-72, originally commissioned for the church of Spedale di Santa Maria della Scala, across the square, and brought to the cathedral in 1506). At the sides of the high altar the uppermost angels are masterpieces by Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1502).

Against the pillars of the presbytery there are eight candelabras in the form of angels by Domenico Beccafumi (1548-50), He also painted the frescoes, representing Saints and Paradise, on the walls in the apse. These were partially repainted in 1912. Behind the main altar is a very large painting Assumption of the Virgin by Bartolomea Cesi in 1594. The presbytery keeps also the beautiful wooden choir stalls, made between 1363-1397 and extended in the 16c. Originally there were more than ninety choir stalls, arranged in double rows. The remaining 36 stalls are each crowned by the bust of a saint in a pointed niche. Their backs are decorated with carved panels, the work of Fra’ Giovanni da Verona in 1503.

Pulpit
The Siena pulpit, made of Carrara marble, was sculpted between the end of 1265 and November 1268 by Nicola Pisano with the extensive participation of his son Giovanni Pisano and his assistants Arnolfo di Cambio, Lapo di Ricevuto and several other artists. This is the earliest remaining work in the cathedral. Nicola Pisano was given this commission due to his fame by the Pisa pulpit. This pulpit is even more ambitious and is considered his masterpiece. The whole message of the pulpit is concerned with the doctrine of Salvation and the Last Judgment.

The pulpit is octagonal in shape. There are nine columns, made of granite, porphyry and green marble. Four columns rest on a base, two are supported by lions and two by lionesses, while the central column rests on small statues of the Seven Liberal Arts and Philosophy.

On the middle level, the trefoil arches between the eight columns are separated by small statues, representing the Christian Virtue. In the spandrels, the space between the trefoils and the statues, Pisano has included statuettes of the Evangelists and Prophets, announcing the salvation of mankind.

the pulpit and a view on the mosiac floor.
the pulpit and a view on the mosiac floor.

The seven scenes on the top level of the pulpit explore further the theme of salvation. They are difficult to see because of the dark interior of the cathedral. The colonettes between the panels have been carved into small figures of prophets and angels. The upper and lower cornices are equally richly carved, giving the whole a scroll-like reading of the scenes.

The seven scenes narrate the Life of Christ.The many figures in each scene with their chiaroscuro effect, show a richness of surface, motion and narrative. The characters express their emotions and are very aware of the unfolding drama. The faces of the Blessed and the Damned in the Last Judgment panel show realistic expressions. The different scenes in several panels are set above each other, giving the impression of a certain depth. Each panel is filled to the top with figures to avoid open spaces.

Visitation and Nativity 
Journey and Adoration of the Magi 
Presentation in the Temple and Flight into Egypt 
Massacre of the Innocents 
Crucifixion 
Last Judgment with the Blessed 
Last Judgment with the Damned 
The staircase dates from 1543 and was built by Bartolomea Neroni. At the same time, the pulpit was moved from the choir to its present location. It was raised on a square base, with a rectangular base jutting out on each side

This pulpit expresses the northern Gothic style, adopted by Pisano, while still showing his classical influences.

Mosaic floor

Slaughter of the Innocents (detail).

Slaughter of the Innocents (detail).

The inlaid marble mosaic floor is one of the most ornate of its kind in Italy, covering the whole floor of the cathedral. This undertaking went on for two centuries (14th-16th c.) and about forty artists made their contribution. The floor consists of 56 panels in different sizes. Most have a rectangular shape, but the later ones in the transept are hexagons or rhombuses. They represent the sibyls, scenes from the Old Testament, allegories and virtues. Most are still in their original state. The earliest scenes were made by a graffito technique : drilling tiny holes and scratching lines in the marble and filling these with bitumen or mineral pitch. In a later stage black, white, green, red and blue marble intarsia were used. This technique of marble inlay also evolved during the years, finally resulting in a vigorous contrast of light and dark, giving it an almost modern, impressionistic composition.

The uncovered floor can only be seen during three weeks each year. The rest of the year, they are covered and only a few are on display.

The earliest panel was probably the Wheel of Fortune (Ruota della Fortuna), laid in 1372 (restored in 1864). The She-Wolf of Siena with the emblems of the confederate cities (Lupa senese e simboli delle città alleate) probably dates from 1373 (also restored in 1864). The Four Virtues (Temperanza, Prudenza, Giustizia and Fortezza) and Mercy (Misericordia) date from 1406, as established by a payment made to Marchese d'Adamo and his fellow workers. They ware the craftsmen who executed the cartoons of Sienese painters.

The first known artist, working on the panels, was Domenico di Niccolò dei Cori, who was in charge of the cathedral between 1413 and 1423. We can ascribe to him several panels such as the Story of King David, David the Psalmist and David and Goliath. His successor as superintendent, Paolo di Martino, completed between 1424 and 1426 the Victory of Joshua and Victory of Samson over the Philistines.

In 1434 the renowned painter Domenico di Bartolo continued with a new panel Emperor Sigismund Enthroned (Imperatore Sigismundo in trono). The Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund had stayed during ten months in Siena on his way to Rome for his coronation. This panel is proof of his popularity by the Sienese. Next to this panel, is the composition in 1447 (probably) by Pietro di Tommaso del Minella of the Death of Absolom (Morte di Assalonne).

The next panel dates from 1473 : Stories from the Life of Judith and the Liberation of Bethulia (Liberazione di Betulia) (probably) by Urbano da Cortona.

Story of Fortuna, with (on top) Socrates.
Story of Fortuna, with (on top) Socrates.

In 1480 Alberto Aringhieri was appointed superintendent of the works. From then on, the mosaic floor scheme began to make serious progress. Between 1481 and 1483 the ten panels of the Sibyls were worked out. A few are ascribed to eminent artists, such as Matteo di Giovanni (the Samian Sibyl), Neroccio di Bartolomea (Hellespontine Sibyl) and Benvenuto di Giovanni (Albunenan Sibyl). The Cumaean, Delphic, Persian and Phrygian Sibyls are from the hand of the obscure German artist Vito di Marco. The Erythraean Sibyl was originally by Antonio Federighi, the Libyan Sibyl by the painter Guidoccio Cozzarelli, but both have been extensively renovated. The large panel in the transept The Slaughter of the Innocents (Strage degli Innocenti) is probably the work of Matteo di Giovanni in 1481. The large panel below, the Expulsion of Herod (Cacciata di Erode), was designed by Benvenuto di Giovanni in 1484-1485. The Story of Fortuna, or Hill of Virtue (Allegoria della Fortuna), by Pinturicchio in 1504, was the last one commissioned by Aringhieri. This panel also gives a depiction of Socrates.

Domenico Beccafumi, the most renowned Sienese artist of his time, worked on the floor during thirty years (1518-1547). Half of the thirteen Scenes from the Life of Elijah, in the transept of the cathedral, were designed by him (two hexagons and two rhombuses). The eight meter long frieze Moses Striking water from the Rock was executed by him in 1525. The bordering panel, Moses on Mount Sinai was laid in 1531. His final contribution was the panel in front of the main altar : the Sacrifice of Isaac (1547).

Works of art

Saint Peter by Michelangelo.

Saint Peter by Michelangelo.

The cathedral contains valuable pieces of art including The Feast of Herod by Donatello, and works by Bernini and the young Michelangelo. It makes this cathedral an extraordinary museum of Italian sculpture.

The funeral monument for cardinal Riccardo Petroni was erected between 1317 and 1318 by the Sienese sculptor Tino ai Camaino (ca. 1285-ca. 1337). He had succeeded his father as the master builder of the Siena cathedral. The marble monument in the left transept is the earliest example of 14th c. funeral architecture. It is composed of a richly decorated sarcophagus, held aloft on the shoulders of four statues. Above the sarcophagus, two angels draw apart a curtain, revealing the cardinal lying on his deathbed, accompanied by two guardian angels. The monument is crowned by a spired tabernacle with statues of the Madonna and Child, Saint Peter and Saint Paul.

In the pavement, in front of this monument, lies the bronze tombstone of Bishop Giovanni di Bartolomeo Pecci, bishop of Grosseto, made by Donatello in 1427. It shows the dead prelate laid out in a concave bier in highly illusionistic low relief. Looking at it obliquely from the end of the tomb, gives the impression of a three-dimensionality. It was originally located in front of the high altar and moved to the present location in 1506.

The wall tomb of bishop Tommasso Piccolomini del Testa is set above the small door leading to the bell tower. It is the work of the Sienese painter and sculptor Neroccio di Bartolomeo Landi in 1483.

The Piccolomini altar, left of the entrance to the library, is the work of the Lombard sculptor Andrea Bregno in 1483. This altarpiece is remarkable because of the four sculptures in the lower niches, made by the young Michelangelo between 1501 and 1504 : Saint Peter, Saint Paul, Saint Gregory (with the help of an assistant) and Saint Pius. On top of the altar is the Madonna and Child, a sculpture (probably) by Jacopo della Quercia.

Many of the Duomo's original furnishings, such as Duccio di Buoninsegna's Maestà and Cimabue's stained glass window, have been removed to the nearby Museo del Opera del Duomo.

Chapel of Saint John the Baptist

St. John the Baptist by Donatello.

St. John the Baptist by Donatello.

The Chapel of Saint John the Baptist is situated in the left transept. At the back of this chapel, amidst a rich renaissance decorations, is the bronze statue of St. John the Baptist by Donatello. In the middle is a 15th c. baptismal font. But most impressive in this chapel are the eight frescoes by Pinturicchio, commissioned by Alberto Aringhieri, and painted between 1504 and 1505. Two are repainted in the 17th c. and a third was completely replaced in 1868. The original paintings in the chapel are : Nativity of John the Baptist, John the Baptist in the desert and John the Baptist preaching. He also painted two portraits : Aringhieri with the cloak of the Order of the Knights of Malta and Kneeling Knight in Armour. These two portraits show us a very detailed background.

The Chigi Chapel

Madonna del Voto and St. Catherine of Siena (by Ercole Ferrata).

Madonna del Voto and St. Catherine of Siena (by Ercole Ferrata).

The small Chigi Chapel (or Capella della Madonna del Voto) is situated in the right transept. It is the last, most luxurious sculptural addition to the Duomo, andwas commissioned in 1659 by the Sienese Chigi pope Alexander VII. This circular chapel with a gilded dome was built by the German architect Schor on the baroque designs of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, replacing a 15th c. chapel. At the back of the chapel is the Madonna del Voto (by a follower of Guido da Siena, 13th c.), that even today is much venerated and receives each year the homages of the contrade. On the eve of the battle of Montaperti (4 September 1260) against Florence, the city of Siena had dedicated itself to the Madonna. The victory of the Sienese, against all odds, over the much more numerous Florentines was ascribed to her miraculous protection.

Two of the four marble sculptures in the niches, are by Bernini himself : Saint Jerome and Mary Magdalene. The other two are Saint Bernardine (Antonio Raggi) and Saint Catherine of Siena (Ercole Ferrata). The eight marble colums are originally from the Lateran Palace in Rome. The bronze gate at the entrance is by Giovanni Artusi.

Piccolomini Library

scenes 7-10 and the Three Graces

scenes 7-10 and the Three Graces

Adjoining the cathedral is the Piccolomini library, housing precious illuminated choir books and frescoes painted by the Umbrian Bernardino di betto, called Pinturicchio, probably based on designs by Raphael.

The visual impact of these very colourful frescoes is stunning. The frescoes tell the story of the life of Siena's favourite son, cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini, who eventually became Pope Pius II. He was the uncle of cardinal Francesco Piccolomini Todeschini (then archbishop of Siena and the future pope Pius III), who commissioned this library in 1492 as a repository of the books and the manuscript collection of his uncle. The ceiling is covered with painted panels of mythological subjects, bordered by . The were executed between 1502 and 1503 by Pinturecchio and his assistants.

Scenes 5 and 6
Scenes 5 and 6

The entrance is a finely carved marble monument with two openings with round arches, executed in 1497 by Lorenzo di Mariano. It contains a round relief of St. John the Evangelist (probably) by Giovanni di Stefano and, below the altar, a polychrome Pietà by the sculptor Alberto di Betto da Assisi in 1421. Above this marble monument is a fresco of the Papal Coronation of Pius III by Pinturicchio in 1504.

In the middle of the library is the famous statue Three Graces, a Roman copy of a Greek original.

Pinturicchio painted this cycle of frescoes around the library between 1502 and 1507, representing Rafael and himself in several of them. This masterpiece is full of striking detail and vivacious colours. Each scene is explained in Latin by the text below. They depict ten remarkable events from the secular and religious career of pope Pius II, first as a high prelate, then bishop, a cardinal and ultimately pope :

Baptistry
Unlike Florence or Pisa, Siena did not build a separate baptistry. The baptistry, is located underneath the eastern bays of the choir of the Duomo. Work began in 1327 and was completed about 1325. It is rectangular in shape, divided in three aisles. The frescoes on the vaults were painted by Lorenzo di Pietro (also called "Vecchietta") between 1447 and 1450. They represent the Articles of Faith, Prophets and Sibyls. Unfortunately, these valuable frescoes were repainted at the end of the 19th c. He also painted two scenes on the wall of the apse : Flagellation and Road to Calvary. Lichele di Matteo da Bologna painted in 1477 the frescoes on the vault of the apse.

The marvellous hexagonal baptismal font with bas-reliefs and gilded brass figures by Donatello, Ghiberti, Jacopo della Quercia and other 15th-century sculptors is the greatest art treasure in the baptistry. The panels represent the Life of John the Baptist.

Annunciation to Zacharias by Jacopo della Quercia (1428-1429) 
Birth of John the Baptist by Giovanni di Turino (1427) 
Baptist preaching by Giovanni di Turino (1427) 
Baptism of Christ by Ghiberti (1427) 
Arrest of John the Baptist by Ghiberti and Giuliano di Ser Andrea 
Herod's Banquet by Donatello (1427) 
These panels are flanked on the corners by six figures, two by Donatello (Faith and Hope) in 1429; three by Giovanni di Turino (Justice, Charity and Providence) in 1431; Fortitude is by Goro di Ser Neroccio in 1431.

The marble shrine on the font was designed by Jacopo della Quercia between 1427 and 1429. The five Prophets in the niches and the marble statuette of John the Baptist at the top are equally by his hand. Two of the bronze angels are by Donatello, three by Giovanni di Turino (the sixth is by an unknown artist).

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