Top Ten Essential Architecture top ten London utilities  
     
  For a more complete list, see the main list  
1 Greenwich Hospital  

architect

Sir Christopher Wren

location

on the river Thames at Greenwich, south-east London 

date

1696 to 1715 Not to be confused with Wren's Greenwich Observatory, 1675-1676. 

style

English Baroque

construction

masonry

type

Hospital

The Greenwich Hospital in London was founded in 1694 as the Royal Naval Hospital for Seamen.
It is a Royal Charity for the benefit of seafarers and their dependents, with the Secretary of State for Defence acting as the Crown's sole Trustee.
The hospital was established as a residential home for injured sailors, on the model of Les Invalides and the Chelsea Hospital. The charity now funds sheltered housing for former Royal Navy personnel and the Royal Hospital School at Holbrook in Suffolk.
The hospital occupied its prime riverside site on the south bank of the river Thames in Greenwich, London for over 170 years, closing to pensioners in 1869.
It was subsequently occupied by the Royal Naval College until 1998 when the site was opened to the public and the main buildings transferred to academic uses. The principal occupant is now the University of Greenwich.
 
     
2 St. Pancras Station  

architect

William Henry Barlow with R. M. Ordish. Hotel at front Sir Giles Gilbert Scott.

location

central London

date

1864 - 1868

style

NeoGothic (After Lord Palmerston vetoed Scott's Gothic designs for the Foreign Office) "At St Pancras, however, Scott got his chance. This time he decided to play down the Italian element. The polychromy is still there, But the skyline is no longer rectangular but syncopated, no longer Italian but Dutch or Flemish; and some of the details are Early English or Early French. The Cloth Hall at Ypres is the origin of the station entrance tower; Oudenaarde town hall probably supplied the inspiration for his gabled and pinnacled hotel entrance; the mouldings around the great entrance are Early French; the first-floor oriel windows incorporate distant echoes of Bishop Bridport's tomb at Salisbury Cathedral; other windows just as clearly, are Anglicised Venetian. With a pedigree like that - Pugin, Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc - now wonder Scott thought his design 'almost too good for its purpose'." J Mordaunt Crook, The Dilemma of Style, John Murray, London 1989 p93

construction

brick and steel 74 meter clear span

type

railway station. In popular culture a losing competition entry for the Westminster Palace Houses of Parliament.
 
     
3 London Underground  

architect

various

location

Greater London and Chiltern, Epping Forest, Three Rivers, Watford

date

1863

style

various

construction

System length 408 km / 253 miles
No. of lines twelve
No. of stations 274
Daily ridership 2.671 million (approximately)
Track gauge 1435 mm (4 ft 8½ in)
Operator Transport for London

type

Electrified Metro Railway
 
     
4 Thames Barrier  
093-Thames_Barrier_059184.jpg (76356 bytes)

architect

Rendel, Palmer and Tritton

location

Woolwich, east of London

date

1974-82

style

High-Tech Modern

construction

steel

type

surge tide barrier

The Thames Barrier is a flood control structure on the River Thames at Woolwich Reach in London. It is the world's second largest movable flood barrier after the Oosterscheldekering in the Netherlands.
 
     
5 Battersea Power Station  
062B.jpg (104089 bytes)

architect

Sir Giles Gilbert Scott

location

Battersea, on the Thames opposite Pimlico

date

1939

style

Art Deco

construction

steel-framed building with brickwork hung from the outside

type

Utility

Battersea Power Station, completed in 1939, was the first in a series of very large (for the era) coal-fired electrical generating facilities set up in England as part of the National Grid power distribution system then being introduced. The grade II listed building is being converted to a large commercial and entertainment complex as the centrepiece of a project to rejuvenate the area.
 
     
6 Paddington Station  

architect

Isambard Kingdom Brunel with Matthew Digby Wyatt. 

location

Paddington

date

1852 to 1854

style

NeoClassical

construction

cast iron and brick

type

Utility

Paddington station is a major National Rail and London Underground station complex in the Paddington area of London, England. The site is a historic one, having served as the London terminus of the Great Western Railway and its successors since 1838. Much of the current mainline station dates back to 1854, and was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The site was first served by Underground trains in 1863, and was the original western terminus of the Metropolitan Railway, the worlds first underground railway.
 
     
7 Continental Train Platform  
008-eurostarlondon.jpg (40696 bytes)

architect

Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners with Anthony Hunt Associates, Engineers

location

Waterloo Station, York Road London SE1 7ND

date

1993

style

High-Tech Modern

construction

steel and glass

type

railway station

Best known for its 400-meter-long curved glass roof, Grimshaw's International Terminal at Waterloo Station provides airport-quality accommodation for the London end of the Eurostar trains services through the Channel Tunnel to Paris and Brussels.

The length of the trains and the curve of the five new tracks dedicated to the Eurostar service at the side of the existing station determined the geometry of the new building, including the distinctive roof.
 
     
8 Stansted Airport  

architect

Norman Foster

location

Stansted, Surrey, south of London

date

1991

style

High-Tech Modern

construction

steel column modules

type

airport

Stansted Airport (IATA: STN, ICAO: EGSS) is a large passenger airport with a single runway and hub for a number of major European low-cost airlines. Stansted is the fourth busiest airport in the UK after London Heathrow, London Gatwick and Manchester International Airport. It is located in the Uttlesford District of the English county of Essex about 30 miles (48 km) north-east of London. The airport is owned and operated by BAA. It is the third-busiest airport in the London area after Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport.
 
     
9 Canary Wharf Tube Station  
068-Canary_wharf_tube_station.jpg (52729 bytes)

architect

Norman Foster

location

Canary Wharf station on the Jubilee Line, between Canada Water and North Greenwich

date

Opened 1999

style

High-Tech Modern

construction

concrete, steel, glass

type

Transport

The tube station was intended from the start to be the showpiece of the Jubilee Line Extension, and its design was awarded in 1990 to the renowned architect Sir Norman Foster. It was constructed in a drained arm of the former dock, using a simple "cut and cover" method to excavate an enormous pit 24 metres (78 feet) deep and 265 metres (869 feet) long. The resulting large volume of the interior has led to it being compared to a cathedral, and it has even been used to celebrate a wedding. However, the main reason for the station's enormous proportions is the great number of passengers predicted — as many as 50,000 daily.