london british architecture
gallery of nineteenth century London    
Museums
The British compulsion to collect artifacts means that Britain has the best museums in the world - we had a whole empire to plunder. Below is a shortlist of the main museums, but whatever your interest, from 17th Century fans, to fan engines, there's a museum specifically catering to your taste. And virtually all of them are free....
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10- Dulwich Gallery 20- Museum of Natural History 27- Soane Museum
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41- The British Museum 48- Whitechapel Art Gallery 52- The Victoria and Albert Museum
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60- The Tate Modern 67- The National Gallery 83- Imperial War Museum
 
99- Tate Britain 100- National Portrait Gallery  
Churches
London is the location of many famous churches, chapels and cathedrals, in a density unmatched anywhere else in England.
Wren
Before the Great Fire of London in 1666, the City of London had over 107 churches in an area of only one square mile (2.6 km²). Of the 86 destroyed by the Fire, 51 were rebuilt along with St Paul's Cathedral. The majority have traditionally been regarded as the work of Sir Christopher Wren, but although their rebuilding was entrusted primarily to him, the role of his various associates, including Robert Hooke and Nicholas Hawksmoor especially, is currently being reassessed and given greater emphasis.
The designs of the Wren office have provided a benchmark for church architecture ever since. Their character of pragmatism and fitness for purpose combined with a joyous inventiveness do seem to reflect Wren's personality in particular. Wren also designed a number of churches outside the City, including St James's, Piccadilly and St Clement Danes. After Wren, Hawksmoor was by common consent London's most significant church architect, being responsible in his own right for six great churches in the East End of London, of which most still stand (for example St George's Church, Bloomsbury and Christ Church, Spitalfields) .
Metropolitan area
London's churches are extraordinarily numerous and diverse. Most lie within the Anglican dioceses of London to the north and the Southwark to the south. There are still some two thousand churches across the capital, of every age and style, to the design and evolution of which at least six hundred different architects have made contributions. As London expanded during the early 19th century, many new churches were built to cater for the growing urban population; the "Waterloo churches" programme, for example, saw numerous churches constructed across south London in the first half of the century.
Significance
Although many churches were entirely or partly lost to 19th-century demolitions and to bombing in the Second World War, London's remaining churches are renowned worldwide for their historical and architectural value. Today, London's greatest concentrations of historic churches and cathedrals are in the City of London and the neighbouring City of Westminster. A number of the churches are mentioned in the nursery rhyme Oranges and Lemons. Unless noted otherwise, this list of churches belong to the Anglican church.
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07- Christ Church 26- Saint Paul's Cathedral 30- St. Clement Danes
29- St. Antholin 107- Priory Church of St Bartholomew the Great 36- St. Mary Woolnoth
033a.jpg (52665 bytes) The Abbey's western façade
33- St. Martin-in-the-Fields 45- Westminster Abbey 49- Temple Church
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34- St. Mary-le-Strand 35- St. Mary Le Bow 94- Westminster Cathedral
 
37- St. Nicholas Cole Abbey 38- St. Stephen's Walbrook  
Bridges
The Thames is central to the way Londoners see themselves through history and today, shaping regional identities and loyalties.
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091- London Bridges 61- Millenium Footbridge 43- Tower Bridge
Buildings
From Mediaeval to Imperial to modern high tech.
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01- 30 St Mary Axe 02- 88 Wood Street 12- Food Theater Cafe
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09- Crystal Palace 16- Lloyds Building 70- Royal Albert Hall
19- Millennium Dome 21- Offices, Finsbury Avenue 23- Palm House at Kew Gardens
 
24- Penguin Basin 42- The Mound Stand  
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98- King's College 56- Harrod's 72- Bank of England
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79- Freemasons Hall 80- Guildhall 81- Horse Guards
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82- Imperial College 86- Lincolns Inn 87- The London Eye
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89- Lord's 92- The Oxo Tower 32- Leadenhall Markets
104- The Connaught Hotel 105- The Ritz 108- Claridge's
   
109- The Savoy    
Government
Buildings in the capital display the development of democracy through Imperial days to modern large government.
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28- Somerset House 17- London City Hall 47- Westminster Palace
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46- Westminster Hall 69- Admiralty Arch 58- The Old Bailey
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77- County Hall    
Utilities
Britain, home of the Industrial Revolution and Victorian opulence, has some superb public industrial buildings.
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08- Continental Train Platform 14- Greenwich Hospital 22- Paddington Station
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25- S. Pancras Station 39- Stansted Airport 93- Thames Barrier
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62- Battersea Power Station 63- London Underground 68- Canary Wharf Tube Station
Housing
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03- Alexandra Road Housing 11- Fleet Road Terrace Housing 15- Housing in Camden
 
18- London Terraced House 40- The Ark  
Palaces
Medieval London is well known for having been full of rich monasteries, nunneries, colleges, and parish churches. So much so that it might be compared to the 'Ile Sonnante 'of Rabelais. If it could be called a 'City of Churches', it was, in fact, much more a 'City of Palaces'. For there were, in London, more palaces than in Verona and Florence and Venice and Genoa all put together. There was not, it is true, a line of marble 'palazzi 'along the banks of a Grande Canale; there was no Piazza della Signoria, no Piazza della Erbe to show these buildings. They were scattered about all over the City. They were built without regard to general effect and with no idea of decoration or picturesqueness. They lay hidden in narrow winding labyrinthine streets. The warehouses stood beside and between them. The common people dwelt in narrow courts around them. They faced each other on opposite sides of the lanes.
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04- Chiswick House 05- Banqueting House 44- Tower of London
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50- Windsor Castle 51- Hampton Court 71- Apsley House
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73- Buckingham Palace 75- Clarence House 78- Eltham Palace
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84- Kensington Palace 31- St. James 95- Winchester Palace
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85- Lambeth Palace 96-Mansion House  
Monuments
A great many monuments pay homage to people and events in the city. The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London, which originated nearby. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Monument and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson's Column is a nationally-recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, one of the focal points of the centre.
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53- The Albert Monument 65- Nelson's Column- Trafalgar Square 74- The Cenotaph
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76- Cleopatra's Needle 90- The Monument 110- The Euston Arch
Theatres
Most of the theatres in "Theatreland" are of late Victorian or Edwardian construction, and they are privately owned. Most of them have great character, and the largest and best maintained are splendid, featuring grand neo-classical, romanesque, or Victorian facades and luxurious, detailed interior design and decoration. On the other hand, leg room is often cramped, and audience facilities such as bars and toilets are often much smaller than in modern theatres. The protected status of the buildings and their confined urban locations, combined with financial constraints, mean that it is very difficult to make substantial improvements to the level of comfort offered. In 2004, it was estimated that an investment of £250 million was required for modernisation, and the theatre owners unsuccessfully requested tax concessions to help them meet the costs.
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13- Globe Theater 88- The Palladium 106-  The London Coliseum
Parks, Squares, Areas
London is well endowed with open spaces. Green space in central London consists of five Royal Parks, supplemented by a number of small garden squares scattered throughout the city centre. Open space in the rest of the city is dominated by the remaining three Royal Parks and many other parks and open spaces of a range of sizes, run mainly by the local London boroughs, although other owners include the National Trust and the Corporation of London.
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06- Bedford Park 59- Fleet Street 64- The West End / Leicester Square
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66- Picadilly Circus DV32- Saint James's Park 54- Regent's Park
97- Hyde Park 98- Kensington Gardens 101- Portobello Road
     
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