Frankfort on the Main (Frankfurt am Main)  germany
001 Hauptbahnhof 002 Römer 003 Saint Bartholomeus' Cathedral
004 St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche) 005 Alte Oper 006 IG Farben Building
 
007 New Frankfurt, housing estates 008 Museum für angewandte Kunst 009 Kunsthalle
 
010 Rothschild House 011 Red Light district 012 Commerzbank Tower
013  Silver Tower 014 MesseTurm 015 Kronenhochhaus (DZ-Bank)
016 Maintower 017 Trianon 018 Städel
019 Senckenberg Natural History Museum 020 Deutsche-Bank 021 Europaturm
 
022 Schumann Theater 023 The Stone House 024 Frankfurt Stock Exchange
025 Eschenheim Tower 026 Dreikönigskirche
Church of the Magi
027 Liebfrauenkirche und Liebfrauenberg
Church of Our Lady, Our Lady's Square
028 Historical Museum of the City Frankfurt/Main 029 Hauptwache 030 Alte Nikolaikirche
     
 
Frankfurt

-
click here for a Frankfurt Gallery 1600-1850
-click here for a Frankfurt Gallery World War Two

 
The three pillar industries of Frankfurt are finance, exhitibions and transport; it is the transport hub of Germany. Frankfurt has been Germany's financial capital for centuries. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is Germany's largest, the site of 85% of Germany's turnover in stocks, and one of the world's biggest. Frankfurt is also the home of the European Central Bank and the German Bundesbank. Many large trade fairs also call Frankfurt home.

During WWII, Frankfurt was heavily bombed, though the city quickly recovered.

Frankfurt is often called "Bankfurt" or "Mainhattan" (derived from the local Main River). It is one of only three European cities that have a significant number of high-rise skyscrapers. The others being Paris and London. The city of Frankfurt contains the tallest skyscraper in Europe, the Commerzbank. In Germany, only Frankfurt and Düsseldorf have high-rise skyscrapers.

Frankfurt is renowned for its finance industry, on par with London and Paris, as well as for its central location in Western Europe, surrounded by the most populous areas of Europe. It has a first-class infrastructure and a major international airport: Frankfurt International Airport. Frankfurt has a huge number of institutions, among them its university, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, as well as a number of museums, most of them lined up along the Main river on the Museumsufer (museum shore) and a large botanical garden, the Palmengarten. The best known museums are the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, or short Städel, and the Senckenberg Natural History Museum. The Museum für moderne Kunst (Museum of Modern Art) and Schirn Kunsthalle (Schirn Art Galery) are also notable.
 

Frankfurt am Main is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. The city is at the center of the larger Frankfurt Rhine Main Area which has a population of 5 million and is Germany's second largest metropolitan area.

Situated on the Main river, Frankfurt is the seat of the European Central Bank, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and is one of the two largest financial centres in continental Europe (the other one being Paris).

Among English speakers the city is commonly known simply as "Frankfurt", though Germans sometimes call it by its full name to distinguish it from the other Frankfurt in the German state of Brandenburg, known as Frankfurt (Oder). It was once called Frankfort-on-the-Main in English, a direct translation of Frankfurt am Main.


Main Station Frankfurt


Frankfurt International Airport

Overview

The skyline of Frankfurt at dusk

The Twin Towers of the Deutsche Bank

Commerzbank-Tower & Maintower at night

Frankfurt has played a central role in the political history of Germany and the German states for centuries. From 855 to 1792 Frankfurt was the electoral city for the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. In the 1848-49 revolutions, it became a sort of revolutionary capital and was the seat of the first democratically elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche, or the St. Paul's Church.

The three pillars of Frankfurt's economy are finance, transport, and trade fairs. Frankfurt has been Germany's financial capital for centuries, and it is the home of a number of major banks and brokerages. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is Germany's largest, and one of the world's most important. Frankfurt houses the European Central Bank, which sets monetary policy for the Eurozone economy, and the German Bundesbank. It also houses a number of major commercial banks, including Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, and Commerzbank.

Frankfurt has an excellent transportation infrastructure and a major international airport and European transportation hub, the Frankfurt International Airport. Frankfurt Airport ranks among the world's top ten airports and serves 304 flight destinations in 110 countries.Depending whether total passengers or flights are used to measure, it ranks as the second or third busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris' Charles de Gaulle. Its central location at Europe's heart and its excellent accessibility by air, rail and road make Frankfurt Airport City especially attractive. In addition, many large trade fairs take place in Frankfurt each year, notably the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung (Frankfurt Motor Show) and the Frankfurt Book Fair, which have far over 100,000 visitors each, but also important special interest fairs like the LinuxWorld Conference & Expo or Musikmesse Frankfurt.

Frankfurt is often nicknamed "Bankfurt", "Mainhattan" (derived from the local Main River) or "The Big Äppel" (named for its apple wine industry). It is one of only four European cities that have a significant number of high-rise skyscrapers. With eleven skyscrapers taller than 150 m (492 ft) in 2004, Frankfurt is second behind Paris (La Défense and Montparnasse, with twelve skyscrapers taller than 150 m, not counting the Eiffel Tower), but ahead of London (Canary Wharf and the City, with eight skyscrapers taller than 150 m) and Moscow (seven skyscrapers taller than 150 m). The city of Frankfurt contains the tallest skyscraper in the European Union, the Commerzbank Tower, which is also the second tallest on the continent (after the Triumph-Palace building in Moscow).

Frankfurt is also home to many cultural and educational institutions, the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, many museums, most of them lined up along the Main river on the Museumsufer (museum embankment), and a large botanical garden, the Palmengarten. Frankfurt's second major university, Business School of Finance and Management, focuses on finance. The best-known museums are das Städelsche Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, called Städel, and the Senckenberg Natural History Museum. Others include the Museum for Modern Art, the Schirn Art Gallery, museums for architecture, movies, communications and the Jewish Museum/ Museum Judengasse.

During World War II Frankfurt was heavily bombed and its medieval city centre was destroyed. The city recovered relatively quickly after the war, and its modern shape was formed. Part of the rebuilding process involved creating one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems in the 1970's. That system includes a subway train system (S-Bahn) capable of reaching outlying communities as well as the city center, and a deep subway with smaller coaches (U-Bahn) also capable of traveling above ground on street rails.

History

In the area of the Römer, Roman settlements were established, probably in the first century; some artifacts from that era are found to this day. The city district Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times — it is thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa. Nida (Heddernheim) was also a Roman civitas capital.

The name of Frankfurt on the Main is derived from the Franconofurt of the Germanic tribe of the Franks; Furt (cf. English ford) denotes a low point passage across a stream or river. Alemanni and Franks lived there and by 794 Charlemagne presided over an imperial assembly and church synod, at which Franconofurd (-furt -vurd) is first mentioned. However, since frank is also an old German word for frei ("free"), Frankfurt was a "free ford," an opportunity to cross the river Main without paying a toll.

In the Holy Roman Empire, Frankfurt was one of the most important cities. From 855 the German kings and emperors were elected in Frankfurt and crowned in Aachen. From 1562 the kings/emperors were also crowned in Frankfurt, Maximilian II being the first one. This tradition ended in 1792, when Franz II was elected. He was crowned, on purpose, on Bastille Day, 14 July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille. The elections and coronations took place in St. Bartholomäus cathedral, known as the Kaiserdom (en: Emperor's Cathedral), or in its predecessors.

The Frankfurter Messe (en: Frankfurt trade fair) was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted an Imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the Empire. Since 1478 book trade fairs have been held in Frankfurt, the Frankfurter Buchmesse being still the most important in Germany and, some might say, the world.

In 1372 Frankfurt became a Reichsstadt (en:Imperial city), i.e. directly subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor and not to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.

Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War, but it suffered from the bubonic plague that was brought to the city by refugees. After the end of the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth.

In the Napoleonic Wars Frankfurt was occupied or cannonaded several times by French troops. It nevertheless still remainded a free city until the total collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805/6. In 1806 it become part of the principality of Aschaffenburg under the Fürstprimas ('Prince-Primate', 25 July 1806 – 19 October 1813: Karl Theodor Anton Maria Kämmerer von Worms, Reichsfreiherr von Dalberg (b. 1744 – d. 1817), 1803–1806 Prince-archbishop of Regensburg). This also meant, that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine. In 1810 Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt. Napoleon intended to make his adopted son Eugène de Beauharnais, already prince de Venise ("prince of Venice", a newly established primogeniture in Italy) Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop didn't have legitimate heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810 to 1813, when military tide turned in favor of the Anglo-Prussian lead allies, which turns over the Napoleonic order of central Europe. Dalberg abdicated in favor of Eugène de Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the latter effectively never did rule after the ruin of the French armies and Frankfurt being taken by the allies!

After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna (1812-1815, redrawing the map of Europe) dissolved the grand-duchy, and Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".

After the ill-fated revolution of 1848, Frankfurt was home to the first German National Assembly (Nationalversammlung), which resided in St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche) (see German Confederation for details) and was opened on 18 May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the Prussian king declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt lost its independence after Austro-Prussian War as Prussia annexed in 1866 several smaller states, among them the free city of Frankfurt. The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in 1890.

In 1914 the citizens of Frankfurt founded the University of Frankfurt, later called Johann Wolfgang Goethe University. This is the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest universities.

After World War I Frankfurt was occupied by French troops as a means of reprisal, because the French found the German side guilty of having violated in some details the clauses of the peace treaty of Versailles concerning the demilitarisation of the Rhineland.[Quote from source requested on talk page to verify interpretation of source] In 1924 Ludwig Landmann became the first Jewish Mayor of the city, and led a significant expansion during the following years. However, during the Nazi era, the synagogues of Frankfurt were destroyed.

The city of Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II. About 5 500 residents were killed during the raids, and the once famous medieval city centre, by that time the largest in Germany, was destroyed. The reconstruction after the war took place in an (often-simple) modern style, thus irrevocably changing the architectural face of Frankfurt. Only very few landmark buildings have been reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner.

After the end of the war Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse-(Darmstadt) and the Prussian Hesse provinces. Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital of West Germany — they even went as far as constructing a new parliament building that has never been used for its intended purpose, and is now a TV studio. In the end, Konrad Adenauer (the first post-war Chancellor) preferred the tiny city of Bonn, for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also for another reason; many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt, one of the largest German cities, and a former centre of the old German-dominated Holy Roman Empire, would be accepted as a "permanent" capital of Germany, thereby weakening the West German population's support for reunification and the eventual return of the capital city to Berlin.

Population
Frankfurt is a multicultural city. Most immigrants are from Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, or Italy. The Frankfurt Area is also home to the largest Korean community in Europe. 180 different nationalities reside in Frankfurt.

For a long time Frankfurt was a Protestant-dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved to the city. Today a narrow plurality of citizens are Catholic. Frankfurt has the second largest Jewish community (after Berlin) in Germany.

Geography

Geographic location
The city is located on both sides of the Main River. The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest (Frankfurter Stadtwald) Germany's largest urban forest. The centre of Frankfurt is located on the north of Main River.

Neighbouring communities and areas


view from south, the "Taunus" as background

To the West, Frankfurt borders the Main-Taunus district (Towns and Municipalities Hattersheim am Main, Kriftel, Hofheim am Taunus, Kelkheim (Taunus), Liederbach am Taunus, Sulzbach (Taunus), Schwalbach am Taunus and Eschborn); to the Northwest the Hochtaunuskreis (Towns Steinbach (Taunus), Oberursel (Taunus), Wehrheim, and Bad Homburg v.d. Höhe; to the North the Wetteraukreis (Towns Karben and Bad Vilbel); to the Northeast the Main-Kinzig district (Municipality Niederdorfelden and the town Maintal); to the Southeast the city Offenbach am Main; to the South the Offenbach district (Town Neu-Isenburg); and to the Southwest the Groß-Gerau district (Towns Mörfelden-Walldorf, Rüsselsheim und Kelsterbach).

City divisions and districts
The city is divided into 46 Stadtteile or Ortsteile which is again divided into 118 Stadtbezirke or city districts. The largest Ortsteil in area is Sachsenhausen-Süd. Most Stadtteile are incorporated suburbs, or Vororte, or previously separate cities. Some like Nordend arose during the rapid growth of the city in the Gründerzeit after the unification of Germany. Others were formed from settlements, which previously belonged to other city divisions, like Dornbusch (Frankfurt am Main).

The 46 city divisions are combined into 16 area districts or Ortsbezirke, which each have a district committee and chairperson.

History of incorporation
Until the middle of the 19th century, the city territory of Frankfurt consisted of the present-day Stadtteile of Altstadt, Innenstadt, Bahnhofsviertel, Gutleutviertel, Gallusviertel, Westend, Nordend, Ostend and Sachsenhausen. After 1877, a number of previously independent areas were incorporated into the city, see list of current districts of the city.

Sights


Frankfurt Cathedral

Cathedral
Saint Bartholomeus' Cathedral (Dom Sankt Bartholomäus) is a Gothic building, which was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time. It is the main church of Frankfurt. From 1356 onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from 1562 to 1792, emperors were crowned here.

Since the 18th century, Saint Bartholomeus' has been called "the cathedral" by the people, although it has never been a bishop's seat. In 1867, the cathedral was destroyed by a fire and rebuilt in its present style. The height of the cathedral is 95 m.


Römer


Römer

The name of the town hall means "Roman". In fact, nine houses were acquired by the city council in 1405 from a wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the town hall and was later connected with the neighbouring buildings. In the upper floor, there is the Kaisersaal ("Emperor's Hall") where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets.

The Römer was partially destroyed in World War II, and later rebuilt.

St. Paul's Church


Saint Paul's Church

St. Paul's Church (Paulskirche) is a national historic monument in Germany with great political symbolism, because it was the seat of the first democratically elected Parliament in 1848. It was established in 1789 as a Protestant church but was not finished until 1833. Its importance has its root in the Frankfurt Parliament, which met in the church during the revolutionary years of 1848/49 in order to write a constitution for a united Germany. The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power, and in 1849 Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force of arms and the parliament was dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again.

St. Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly the interior of the building, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is not used for religious services, but mainly for exhibitions and events.

Concert House Old Opera


Opera House

Alte Oper, Frankfurt's famous opera house, was built in 1880 by the architect Richard Lucae. It was one of the major opera houses of Germany, until it was destroyed in World War II. It was not until 1981 that the old opera was fully rebuilt and reopened. Today it functions as a concert hall, while operas are performed in the Oper Frankfurt. The inscription on the frieze of the Old Opera says: "Dem Wahren, Schönen, Guten" ("To the true, the beautiful, the good").

Frankfurt Opera
The Oper Frankfurt is the leading opera company of Germany and one of the most important opera houses in the world.


City Theater at night

20th century architecture
IG Farben Building
New Frankfurt, housing estates 1925-1930
Museum für angewandte Kunst, designed by Richard Meier

Skyscrapers
Frankfurt is unique for its skyscrapers, and it is the only European city to allow skyscrapers within the old central part of town. Along with Paris and London, it also is one of the few European cities to have a significant number of skyscrapers.

The major skyscrapers are:

Commerzbank Tower — Europe's tallest building (1997–2005), designed by Sir Norman Foster.
Silver Tower
MesseTurm — Europe's tallest building (1990–1997)
Kronenhochhaus (DZ-Bank) with its "statue of liberty" like roof structure.
Maintower, among others "Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen" (HeLaBa)
Trianon (Frankfurt am Main).

Other structures


"Hammering Man" in front of the Messeturm skyscraper
Henninger Turm
a grain silo owned by Henninger Brewery with observation deck and restaurant, offering a breath-taking view over downtown Frankfurt from its south shore. The tower has been closed to the public since October 31, 2002.
Europaturm
a telecommunications tower known as the "Frankfurt TV Tower". Until 1999, it was open to the public, with an entertainment establishment in the revolving top.

Culture

Festivals
Frankfurt hosts several festivals, fairs, and carnivals throughout the year. The most famous is the Rheingau-Music-Festival with many (mostly classical) concerts at castles and under the open sky surrounded by vineyards. It's an annual festival, taking place in May. Another major festival in the city is the "Museumsuferfest"; "Museum-Riverbank-Festival". It is one of the biggest cultural festivals in Germany, which offers the opportunity to see, buy, smell, taste and hear new things from all around the world. The festival takes place yearly at the end of summer and attracts an average of 3 million visitors. The festival goes over a period of 3 days and ends with a spectacular show of fireworks. Frankfurt is also known for having one of the largest red light districts in Germany in vicinity of the Hauptbahnhof (main railway station).

Museums


"Staedel"
Städel
Senckenberg Natural History Museum
The Museum for Modern Art (Frankfurt am Main)
Schirn Art Gallery
Deutsches Filmmuseum
Deutsches Architektur Museum
Museum für angewandte Kunst Frankfurt, Museum of Design
Deutsches Ikonenmuseum
Museum für Kommunikation

Culinary specialties

"Bethmaennchen"
Frankfurter Sausage
Frankfurter Rindswurst
Apfelwein
Grüne Soße
Bethmännchen
Frankfurter Kranz
Handkäs mit Musik
Rippchen mit Kraut

Transport

Airports
The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt International Airport. The airport has three runways and is one of the three busiest airports in Europe, along with London Heathrow Airport and Charles de Gaulle International Airport. Frankfurt can also be accessed via Frankfurt-Hahn Airport which is located approximately 120 km from the actual city.

Railways
Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof recently underwent a major development to allow trains from all over Germany to arrive at the station. Long distance trains run by Deutsche Bahn exit and arrive at the station everyday and less luxurious trains run by EuroCity and InterCity do the same.

Local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund (RMV), second largest integrated public transport systems in the world. Only the Berlin integrated public transport system (VBB) is larger.

Subway



The city comprises of two underground railway systems which are U-Bahn and S-Bahn as well as an above-ground tram system known as the Straßenbahn.

The S-Bahn is a far more extensive rail network which is above ground for the majority of the journey, however become subterranean in the city centre. The S-Bahn accesses the suburbs of Frankfurt and the main airport, as well as cities and larger towns in close distance (like Darmstadt, Hanau and Wiesbaden) as well as most towns on the way.

The U-Bahn has seven lines which serve the city centre and some larger suburbs. The trains that run on the line are in fact trams as many lines break to ground surface and travel along the street at the end.

The Straßenbahn only operates within the direct city center of Frankfurt and some smaller suburbs, making it a popular option for mid-day business commuting. It also provides extensive access to area of Sachsenhausen located on the southern bank of the Main river.

A number of bus lines complete the public transportation system of Frankfurt. Night buses usually take over the service of the U-Bahn and Strassenbahn at 1:30 AM.

Fines of €40 are given by ticket conductors if people are found to travel on the tram services without a ticket. These conductors frequently go on the trams.

Taxis
Most taxis can be found outside all S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations and can be hailed down however there is still the option of calling a taxi operator.

Bicycles
Deutsche Bahn also rent out bicycles to the public at a cost of €15 per 24 hours. These bicycles are relatively heavy however have shock absorbers to ensure a smooth journey. However, most recently, bicycles are being dumped after use and not being returned to the stations. The silver-red colour of the bikes with their unique frame make them easily visible and difficult to steal.

The public can now use a velotaxi which involves the operator using a tricycle with a sheltered capsule on top. There is room for two people and the operators cover all of the city centre.

Roads
The roads and streets of Frankfurt city centre are usually congested and some areas are pedestrian-only streets. Despite these congested streets, there are numerous car parks located throughout the city. Frankfurt is also a traffic hub of the German Autobahn system. Within the direct city vicinity Frankfurt connects to the A 1, A 3, A 5, A 66, A 67, A 661 and A 45 Autobahns.

Buses
Frankfurt has an extensive city bus system that augments the streetcar and U-Bahn system.

Economy and Business


Bull and Bear face-off in front of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Frankfurt am Main is a financial and service centre of global importance and, as the focal point of the dynamic Rhine-Main economic region, is one of the leading locations for companies in Europe. Its central location, its well-developed infrastructure with the largest airport on the continent, the concentration of internationally active companies (many of them have headquarters in the city) of various sectors provide Frankfurt with one of the top positions in Europe.

As one of the leading financial centres, more than 300 national and international banks are represented in the Main metropolis. Amongst others, the European Central Bank and the German Bundesbank have their headquarters in Frankfurt. This is also where the Deutsche Börse Group is located.


www.essential-architecture.com    the architecture you must see