Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly
known as Michelangelo, was a Renaissance artist, sculptor and poet.
Michelangelo Buonarroti, by Marcello Venusti.
Michelangelo is famous for creating the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, as
well as the Last Judgment over the altar, and The Martyrdom of St. Peter and
The Conversion of St. Paul in the Vatican's Cappella Paolina; among his many
sculptures are those of David and the Pietà, as well as the big man Doni
Virgin, Bacchus, Moses, Rachel, Leah, and members of the Medici family; he
also designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica.
Michelangelo was born in 1475 near Arezzo, in Caprese, Tuscany. His
father, Lodovico di Leonardo di Buonarotti di Simoni, was the resident
magistrate in Caprese and podestà of Chiusi. His mother was Francesca di
Neri del Miniato di Siena. As genealogies of the day indicated that the
Buonarroti descended from Countess Matilda of Tuscany, the family being
considered minor nobility. However, Michelangelo was raised in Florence and
later lived with a sculptor and his wife in the town of Settignano where his
father owned a marble quarry and a small farm. Michelangelo once said to the
biographer of artists Giorgio Vasari, "What good I have come from the pure
air of your native Arezzo, and also because I sucked in chisels and hammers
with my mother's milk."
Statue of Michelangelo outside the Uffizi, Florence.
Against his father's wishes (in fact to persuade him to take up a more
honorable profession, his father would beat him), after a period of
grammatics studies with the humanist Francesco d'Urbino Michelangelo
chose to continue his apprenticeship in painting with Domenico
Ghirlandaio and in sculpture with Bertoldo di Giovanni: on June 28, 1488
he signed with an already famous painter a contract for three years
starting in 1488. Amazingly enough, Michelangelo's father was able to
get Ghirlandaio to pay the young artist, which was unheard of at the
time. In fact, most apprentices paid their masters for the education.
Impressed, Domenico recommended him to the ruler of the city, Lorenzo
de' Medici, and Michelangelo left his workshop in 1489. From 1490 to
1492, Michelangelo attended Lorenzo's school and was influenced by many
prominent people who modified and expanded his ideas on art, following
the dominant Platonic view of that age, and even his feelings about
sexuality. It was during this period that Michelangelo met literary
personalities like Pico della Mirandola, Angelo Poliziano and Marsilio
In this period Michelangelo finished Madonna of the Steps (1490–1492) and
Battle of the Centaurs (1491–1492). The latter was based on a theme
suggested by Poliziano and was commissioned by Lorenzo de Medici.
Michelangelo by G.F. Rodwell (1877)
After the death of Lorenzo on April 8, 1492, for whom Michelangelo had
become a kind of son, Michelangelo quit the Medici court. In the
following months he produced a Wooden crucifix (1493), as a thanksgiving
gift to the prior of the church of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito who had
permitted him some studies of anatomy on the corpses of the church's
Hospital. Between 1493 and 1494 he bought the marble for a larger than
life statue of Hercules, which was sent to France and disappeared
sometime in the 1700s. He could enter again the court after on January
20, 1494, Piero de Medici commissioned a snow statue from him. But that
year the Medici were expelled from Florence after the Savonarola rise,
and Michelangelo also left the city before the end of the political
upheaval, moving to Venice and then to Bologna. He did stay in Florence
for a while hiding in a small room underneath San Lorenzo that can still
be visited to this day, if you know how to ask the guides. In this room
there are charcoal sketches still on the walls of various images that
Michelangelo drew from his memory.
Here he was commissioned to finish the carving of the last small figures
of the tomb and shrine of St. Dominic, in the church with the same name.
He returned to Florence at the end of 1494, but soon he fled again,
scared by the turmoils and by the menace of the French invasion.
He was again in his city between the end of 1495 and the June of 1496: if
Leonardo considered Savonarola a fanatic and left the city, Michelangelo
was touched by the friar's preaching, by the associated moral severity
and by the hope of renovation of the Roman Church. In that year a marble
Cupid by Michelangelo was treacherously sold to Cardinal Raffaele Riario
as an ancient piece: the prelate discovered the cheat, but was so
impressed by the quality of the sculpture that he invited the artist to
Rome, where he arrived on June 26, 1496. On July 4 Michelangelo started
to carve an over-life-size statue of the Roman god of wine, Bacchus,
commissioned by the banker Jacopo Galli for his garden.
Subsequently, in November of 1497, French ambassador in the Holy See
commissioned one of his most famous works, the Pietà. The contract was
stipulated in the August of the following year. Though he devoted
himself only to sculpture, during his first stay in Rome Michelangelo
never stopped his daily practice of drawing.
In Rome Michelangelo lived near the church of Santa Maria di Loreto: here,
according to the legends, he fell in love (probably a Platonic love)
with Vittoria Colonna, marquise of Pescara and poet. His house was
demolished in 1874, and the remaining architectural elements saved by
new proprietors were destroyed in 1930. Today a modern reconstruction of
Michelangelo's house can be seen on the Gianicolo hill.
Michelangelo's Pietà, one of the absolute masterworks of sculptures of all
times, was carved in 1499, when the sculptor was 24 years old.
Michelangelo returned to Florence in 1499–1501. Things were changing in
the city after the fall of Savonarola and the rise of the gonfaloniere
Pier Soderini. He was proposed by the consuls of the Guild of Wool to
complete a project started 40 years before by Agostino di Duccio that
had never materialized: a colossal statue portraying David as a symbol
of Florentine freedom, to be placed in the Piazza della Signoria, in
front of the Palazzo Vecchio. Michelangelo replied to the commissioning
by completing arguably his most famous work, David in 1504. This
masterwork definitively established his fame as sculptor for his
extraordinary technical skill and the strength of his symbolic
Also during this period, Michelangelo worked on a Virgin and Child with
the young Saint John the Baptist and Angels, 1497, now in the National
Gallery, London. He also painted the Holy Family of the Tribune, also
known as Tondo Doni: it was commissioned for the marriage of Angelo Doni
and Maddalena Strozzi.
Under Pope Julius II in Rome: the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Michelangelo was summoned back to the great city of Rome in 1503 by the
newly appointed Pope Julius II and was commissioned to build the Pope's
tomb. However, under the patronage of Julius II, Michelangelo had to
constantly stop work on the tomb in order to accomplish numerous other
tasks; due to such interruptions, Michelangelo worked on the tomb for 40
years without ever finishing it. One such interruption was the
commission to paint twelve prophets and sybils and scenes from Genesis
on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which took four years to complete
(1508 – 1512). According to Michelangelo's own account, reproduced in
contemporary biographies, Bramante and Raphael convinced the Pope to
commission Michelangelo in a painting style not familiar to the artist,
in order that he might be diverted from his preference for sculpture
into fresco painting, and thus suffer from unfavourable comparisons with
his rival Raphael. However, this story is heavily discounted by modern
historians and contemporary evidence, and may be merely a reflection of
his own perspective.
Michelangelo was originally employed to paint the 12 Apostles, but
protested for a more modern theme, and eventually completed the work
with over 300 Biblical figures in a composition which has attracted many
different interpretations. His figures showed the creation, the creation
of Man, the creation of Woman, Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, the
drunkenness of Noah and the Great Flood. On the lowest part of the
Sistine ceiling he painted the ancestors of Christ. Above this he
alternated male and female prophets, with Jonah over the altar. On the
highest section Michelangelo painted nine stories from the Book of
Genesis. To be able to reach the chapel's ceiling, Michelangelo designed
his own scaffold; a flat wooden platform on brackets built out from
holes in the wall, high up near the top of the windows. He stood on this
scaffolding while he painted. When the first layer of plaster began to
grow mold because it was too wet, Michelangelo had to remove it and
start again. He then tried a new mixture of plaster, called intonaco,
created by one of his assistants, Jacopo l'Indaco. This one not only
resisted mold, but also entered the Italian building tradition (and is
still now in use). Michelangelo used bright colors, easily visible from
Under Medici Popes in Florence
In 1513 Pope Julius II died and his successor Pope Leo X, a Medici,
commissioned Michelangelo to reconstruct the façade of the basilica of
San Lorenzo in Florence and to adorn it with sculptures. Michelangelo
agreed reluctantly. The three years he spent in creating drawings and
models for the facade, as well as attempting to open a new marble quarry
at Pietrasanta specifically for the project, were among the most
frustrating in his career, as work was abruptly cancelled by his
financially-strapped patrons before any real progress had been made. The
basilica is lacking a facade to this day.
Apparently not the least embarrassed by this turnabout, the Medici later
came back to Michelangelo with another grand proposal, this time for a
family funerary chapel in the basilica of San Lorenzo. Fortunately for
posterity, this project, occupying the artist for much of the 1520s and
1530s, was more fully realized. Though still incomplete, it is the best
example we have of the integration of the artist's sculptural and
architectural vision, since Michelangelo created both the major
sculptures as well as the interior plan. Ironically the most prominent
tombs are those of two rather obscure Medici who died young, a son and
grandson of Lorenzo. Il Magnifico himself is buried in an obscure corner
of the chapel, not given a free-standing monument, as originally
Michelangelo's The Last Judgement. Saint Bartholomew is shown holding
the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin. The face of the skin is
recognizable as Michelangelo.
In 1527, the Florentine citizens, encouraged by the sack of Rome, threw
out the Medici and restored the republic. A siege of the city ensued,
and Michelangelo went to the aid of his beloved Florence by working on
the city's fortifications from 1528 to 1529. The city fell in 1530 and
the Medici were restored to power. Completely out of sympathy with the
repressive reign of the ducal Medici, Michelangelo left Florence for
good in the mid-1530s, leaving assistants to complete the Medici chapel.
Years later his body was brought back from Rome for interment at the
Basilica di Santa Croce, fulfilling the maestro's last request to be
buried in his beloved Tuscany.
Michelangelo designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica, although it was
unfinished when he died.
Last works in Rome
The fresco of The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel
was commissioned by Pope Paul III, and Michelangelo labored on the
project from 1534 to October 1541. The work is massive and spans the
entire wall behind the alter of the Sistine Chapel. The Last Judgment is
a depiction of the second coming of Christ and the apocalypse; where the
souls of humanity rise and dissent to their various assorted fates, as
judged by Christ and his Saintly entourage.
Once completed, the depictions of nakedness in the papal chapel was
considered obscene and sacrilegeous, and Cardinal Carafa and Monsignor
Sernini (Mantua's ambassador) campaigned to have the fresco removed or
censored, but the Pope resisted. After Michelangelo's death, it was
decided to obscure the genitals ("Pictura in Cappella Ap.ca
coopriantur"). So Daniele da Volterra, an apprentice of Michelangelo,
was commimssioned to cover with sort of perizomas (briefs) the genitals,
leaving unaltered the complex of bodies (see details). When the work
was restored in 1993, the restorers chose not to remove all the
perizomas of Daniele, leaving some of them as a historical document and
because some of Michelangelo’s work was tragically scraped away by the
touch-up artist application of “decency” to the masterpiece. A faithful
uncensored copy of the original, by Marcello Venusti, can be seen at the
Capodimonte Museum of Naples.
Censorship always followed Michelangelo, once described as "inventor delle
porcherie" ("inventor of obscenities", in the original Italian language
referring to "pork things"). The infamous "fig-leaf campaign" of the
Counter-Reformation, aiming to cover all representations of human
genitals in paintings and sculptures, started with Michelangelo's works.
To give two examples, the bronze [actually, marble] statue of Cristo
della Minerva (church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome) was covered by
a pan, as it remains today, and the statue of the naked child Jesus in
Madonna of Bruges (The Church of Our Lady in Bruges, Belgium) remained
covered for several decades.
In 1546, Michelangelo was appointed architect of St. Peter's Basilica in
the Vatican, and designed its dome. As St. Peter's was progressing there
was concern that Michelangelo would pass away before the dome was
finished. Once they started building the lower part of the dome, the
supporting ring, they knew that the whole design would rise as there
would be no way to turn back.
Michelangelo the architect
Around 1530 Michelangelo designed the Laurentian Library in Florence,
attached to the church of San Lorenzo. He produced new styles such as
pilasters tapering thinner at the bottom, and a staircase with
contrasting rectangular and curving forms.
This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it.
Work on the Palazzo Farnese was begun by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger,
who was commissioned by Pope Paul III Farnese. Michelangelo took over
the works in 1546 after the death of Sangallo.
After the death of Julius II building was halted. His successor, Pope Paul
III, appointed Michelangelo as chief architect following the death of
Antonio de Sangallo in 1546. Michelangelo actually razed some sections
of the church designed by Sangallo in keeping with the original design
by St Peter's first architect, Donato Bramante (1444–1514). However the
only elements built according to Michelangelo's designs are sections of
the rear facade and the magnificent dome. After his death his student
Giacomo della Porta continued with the unfinished portions of the
Michelangelo at the Campidoglio
Michelangelo's first designs for solving the intractable urbanistic,
symbolic, political and propaganda program for the Campidoglio dated
from 1536. The commission was from the Farnese Pope Paul III, who wanted
a symbol of the new Rome to impress the emperor and King of Spain
Charles V, who was expected to visit the city in 1538. The hill was the
Capitoline, the heart of pagan Rome, though that connection was largely
obscured by its other role as the center of the civic government of
Rome, revived as a commune in the 11th century. The city's government
was now to be firmly in papal control, but the Campidoglio was the
former scene of many movements of urban resistance, such as the dramatic
scenes of Cola di Rienzo's revived republic. Approximately in the
middle, not to Michelangelo's liking, now stood the only equestrian
bronze to have survived since Antiquity, portraying emperor Marcus
Aurelius. Michelangelo provided an unassuming pedestal for it.
It was slow work: little was actually completed in Michelangelo's
lifetime, but work continued faithfully to his designs. The Campidoglio
was completed in the 17th century, except for the elegant paving design,
which was to be finished only three centuries later.
Michelangelo effectively turned Rome’s civic center to face in the
direction of St. Peters, and the Christian church. He provided new
fronts to the two official buildings of Rome's civic government, which
very approximately faced each other, the Palazzo dei Conservatori and
the Palazzo Senatorio. The latter had been built over the Tabularium
that had once housed the archives of ancient Rome, and which now houses
the Capitoline Museums, the oldest museum of antiquities of the world.
Michelangelo devised a monumental stair (the Cordonata) to reach the
high piazza, so that the Campidoglio resolutely turned its back on the
Forum that it had once commanded. He gave the space a new building at
the far end, to close the vista, called Palazzo Nuovo, "new palace," and
its facade was thought by Michelangelo as an exact copy to that of
Palazzo dei Conservatori. It was begun in 1603 and finished in 1654.
The Cordonata is a ramped stair that can be accessed on horseback by the
sufficiently great, though it was not in place when Emperor Charles
arrived, and the imperial party had to scramble up the slope from the
Forum to view the works in progress. The unfolding sequence, Cordonata
piazza and the central palazzo are the first urban introduction of the
"cult of the axis" that will occupy Italian garden plans and reach
fruition in France (Giedion 1962). The two massive ancient statues of
Castor and Pollux which decorate the balaustra are not the same posed by
Michelangelo, which now are in front of the Palazzo del Quirinale.
The Palazzo dei Conservatori was the first use of a giant order that
spanned two storeys, here with a range of Corinthian pilasters and
subsidiary Ionic columns flanking the ground-floor loggia openings and
the second-floor windows. Another giant order would serve later for the
exterior of St Peter's. A balustrade punctuated by sculptures atop the
giant pilasters capped the composition, one of the most influential of
Michelangelo's designs. The sole arched motif in the entire design is
the segmental pediments over the windows, which give a slight spring to
the completely angular vertical-horizontal balance of the design.
Michelangelo's systematizing of the Campidoglio, engraved by Étienne
The bird's-eye view of the engraving by Étienne Dupérac shows
Michelangelo's solution to the problems of the space in the Piazza del
Campidoglio. Even with their new facades centering them on the new
palazzo at the rear, the space was a trapezoid, and the facades did not
face each other squarely. Worse than that, the whole site sloped (to the
left in the engraving). Michelangelo's solution was radical. Since no
"perfect" forms would work, his apparent oval in the paving is actually
egg-shaped, narrower at one end. The travertine design set into the
paving is perfectly level: around its perimeter, low steps arise and die
away into the paving as the slope requires. Its center springs slightly,
so that one senses that one is standing on the exposed segment of a
gigantic egg all but buried at the center of the city at the center of
the world, as Michelangelo's historian Charles de Tolnay pointed out
(Charles De Tolnay, 1930). An interlaced twelve-pointed star makes a
subtle reference to the constellations, revolving around this space
called Caput mundi, the "head of the world."
The paving design was never executed by the popes, who may have detected a
subtext of less-than-Christian import. Benito Mussolini ordered the
paving completed to Michelangelo's design — in 1940.
Michelangelo the man
Michelangelo's David statue, in Florence.
Michelangelo, who was often arrogant with others and constantly
unsatisfied with himself, thought that art originated from inner
inspiration and from culture. In contradiction to the ideas of his
rival, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo saw nature as an enemy that had
to be overcome. The figures that he created are therefore in forceful
movement; each is in its own space apart from the outside world. For
Michelangelo, the job of the sculptor is to free the forms that, he
believed, were already inside the stone. This can most vividly be seen
in his unfinished statuary figures, which to many appear to be
struggling to free themselves from the stone.
He also instilled into his figures a sense of moral cause for action. A
good example of this can be seen in the facial expression of his most
famous work, the marble statue David. Arguably his second most famous
work is the fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which is a
synthesis of architecture, sculpture & painting. His Last Judgement,
also in the Sistine Chapel, is a depiction of extreme crisis.
Several anecdotes reveal that Michelangelo's skill, especially in
sculpture, was deeply appreciated in his own time. It is said that when
still a young apprentice, he had made a pastiche of a Roman statue (Il
Putto Dormiente, the sleeping child) of such beauty and perfection, that
it was later sold in Rome as an ancient Roman original. Another
better-known anecdote claims that when finishing the Moses (San Pietro
in Vincoli, Rome), Michelangelo violently hit the knee of the statue
with a hammer, shouting, "Why don't you speak to me?"
Fundamental to Michelangelo's art is his love of male beauty which
attracted him both aesthetically and emotionally. Such feelings caused
him great anguish, and he expressed the struggle between platonic ideals
and carnal desire in his sculpture, drawing and his poetry, too, for
among his other accomplishments Michelangelo was the great Italian lyric
poet of the 16th century.
The sculptor loved a great many youths, many of whom posed for him. Some
were of high birth, like the sixteen year old Cecchino dei Bracci, a boy
of exquisite beauty whose death, only a year after their meeting in
1543, inspired the writing of forty eight funeral epigrams. Others were
street wise and took advantage of the sculptor. Febbo di Poggio, in
1532, peddled his charms — in answer to Michelangelo's love poem he asks
for money. Earlier, Gherardo Perini, in 1522, had stolen from him
His greatest male love was Tommaso dei Cavalieri (c. 1509–1587), who was
23 years old when Michelangelo met him in 1532, at the age of 57. In
their first exchange of letters, January 1, 1533, Michelangelo declares:
Your lordship, only worldly light in this age of ours, you can never be
pleased with another man's work for there is no man who resembles you,
nor one to equal you… It grieves me greatly that I cannot recapture my
past, so as to longer be at your service. As it is, I can only offer you
my future, which is short, for I am too old… That is all I have to say.
Read my heart for "the quill cannot express good will." Cavalieri was
open to the older man's affection: I swear to return your love. Never
have I loved a man more than I love you, never have I wished for a
friendship more than I wish for yours. Cavalieri remained devoted to
Michelangelo till the very end, holding his hand as he drew his last
Michelangelo dedicated to him over three hundred sonnets and madrigals,
constituting the largest sequence of poems composed by him. Though some
modern commentators assert that the relationship was merely a Platonic
affection, the sonnets are the first large sequence of poems in any
modern tongue addressed by one man to another, predating Shakespeare's
sonnets to his young friend by a good fifty years.
I feel as lit by fire a cold countenance
That burns me from afar and keeps itself ice-chill;
A strength I feel two shapely arms to fill
Which without motion moves every balance.
— (Michael Sullivan, translation)
The homoeroticism of Michelangelo's poetry was obscured when his grand
nephew, Michelangelo the Younger, published an edition of the poetry in
1623 with the gender of pronouns changed. John Addington Symonds undid
this change by translating the original sonnets into English and writing
a two-volume biography, published in 1893.
Late in life, he also had a great love for the poet and noble widow
Vittoria Colonna, whom he met in Rome in 1536 or 1538. They wrote
sonnets for each other and were in regular contact until she died,
though many scholars note the intellectualized or spiritual quality of
The Creation of Adam, Michelangelo's most famous painting.
Madonna of the Steps (Madonna of the Stairs) (c. 1491) — Marble, 55,5 × 40
cm, Casa Buonarroti, Florence
Battle of the Centaurs (c. 1492) — Marble, 84,5 × 90,5 cm, Casa
Crucifix (1492) — Polychrome wood, 142 × 135 cm, Santa Maria del Santo
St. Petronius (1494–1495) — Marble, height 64 cm, San Domenico, Bologna
St. Proclus (1494–1495) — Marble, height 58,5 cm, San Domenico, Bologna
Angel (1494–1495) — Marble, height 51,5 cm, San Domenico, Bologna
Bacchus (1496–1497) — Marble, height 203 cm, Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
Pietà (1499–1500) Marble, height 174 cm, width at the base 195 cm, St.
Peter's Basilica, Rome
Palestrina Pietà (?) — Marble, height 253 cm, Galleria dell'Accademia,
Madonna and Child (Madonna of Bruges) (1501–1504) — Marble, height 128 cm,
St. Paul (1503–1504) Marble, Cathedral, Siena
St. Peter (1503–1504) Marble, Cathedral, Siena
Pius (1503–1504) Marble, Cathedral, Siena
Madonna and Child with the Infant St. John (Taddei Tondo) (c. 1503) —
Marbel, diameter 82,5 cm, Royal Academy of Arts, London
Madonna and Child (Tondo Pitti) (c. 1503) — 85,8 × 82 cm, Museo Nazionale
del Bargello, Florence
St. Matthew (c. 1505) — Marble, height 271 cm, Galleria dell'Accademia,
The Tomb of Pope Julius II (Underwent six different phases, in 1505, 1513,
1516, 1525–1526, 1532 and 1542)
Moses (c. 1513–1515) — San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
Rebellious Slave (1513–1516) — Louvre, Paris
Dying Slave (1513–1516) — Louvre, Paris
The Genius of Victory (c. 1532–1534) — Marble, height 261 cm, Palazzo
Young Slave, Bearded Slave, Atlas Slave, Awakening Slave, — Accademia,
The Medici Chapel (1520–1534) Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence
Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici, Night and Day
Tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici, Evening and Morning
Virgin and Child
Apollo (David) (c. 1530) — Marble, height 146 cm, Museo Nazionale del
Cristo della Minerva (Christ Carrying the Cross) (1519–1520) — Marble,
height 205 cm, church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome
Brutus (1540) — Marble, height 95 cm, Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
Florentine Pietà (c. 1550) — Marble, height 253 cm, Museo dell'Opera del
Rondanini Pietà (unfinished, 1552–1564) — Marble, height 195 cm, Castello
The Battle of Cascina, an unfinished fresco that was to be painted in
competition with Leonardo Da Vinci's The Battle of Anghiari
Doni Tondo (c. 1503–1506) — Tempera on panel, diameter 120 cm, Uffizi,
Histories of the Genesis, the Ancestors of Christ, Prophets and Sybils
(Sistine Chapel Ceiling) (1508–1512) Frescoes, Sistine Chapel, Vatican
The Last Judgment (1534–1541) — Fresco, 1370 × 1220 cm, Sistine Chapel,
Vatican Palace, Rome
The Martyrdom of St. Peter (1542–1550) — Fresco, 625 × 662 cm, Cappella
Paolina, Vatican Palace, Rome
The Conversion of St. Paul (1542–1550) — Fresco, 625 × 661 cm, Cappella
Paolina, Vatican Palace, Rome
Umberto Baldini, (photography Liberto Perugi), The Sculpture of
Michelangelo (Rizzoli, 1982) is an excellent work with many fine photos,
all in black and white.
Michael H. Hart, The 100, Carol Publishing Group, July 1992, paperback,
576 pages, ISBN 0806513500
Charles De Tolnay, Michelangelo: Scultor, Painter, Architect. Princeton
University Press, 1975, page 119.
Charles de Tolnay, "Beiträge zu den späten Architechtonischen Projekten
Michwelangelos," in Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 1930, p.26
noted in Siegfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture 1962.
Irving Stone, The Agony and the Ecstasy: A Biographical Novel of
Michelangelo Publisher: Signet Book, paperback: 776 pages, ISBN
James S. Ackerman, The Architecture of Michelangelo. The University of
Chicago Press, 1986.
Gilles Néret, Michelangelo. Taschen, 2004, 94 pages.