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Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Ledoux's Rotonde de la Villette in Paris
A building of the Royal Saltworks
Claude Nicolas Ledoux (March 21, 1736-November 18, 1806) was a French neoclassical architect. Known as a Utopian he hoped that urban design and architecture could lead to an ideal society. Despite this his great works were funded by the French monarchy and came to be seen as symbols of the ancien regime. His career was thus curtailed by the French Revolution. In 1804 he published a book on his works titled L'Architecture considérée sous le rapport de l'art, des mœurs et de la législation.
His most ambitious work was the uncompleted Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, a utopian town showing many examples of Architecture parlante.
He also designed about 60 elaborate toll gates on the Wall of the Farmers-General around Paris.
Ledoux and Boullee: Visionary Architecture of the Revolution
Etienne-Louis Boullee (1728-99)
Project for the Bibliotheque Nationale (National Library), Paris 1785
Monument to Isaac Newton, c. 1784
Exterior, note the rows of cypress trees ringing the sphere
Interior at night, with its own internal illumination recreating the solar system
Interior during the day, with light admitted through holes in the dome to recreate the night sky
Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1735-1806)
Hotel Thelusson, Paris (demolished)
House for Marie-Madeleine Guimard, Paris, 1773-6
Elevation, composed of a double height coffered niche screened by four Ionic columns. The figure sculpture resting on the entablature of the portico represents Terpsichore, the muse of dancing, an appropriate choice as Guimard was a dancer at the Paris Opera
Plan, showing the small private theater on the second floor of the gate house
Barrieres, or toll gates for Paris, 1784-89
Most of Ledoux's toll gates were destroyed in the French Revolution shortly after they were completed.
Rotonde de la Villette, Paris; one of the few surviving toll gates.
Ideal town of Chaux (1775-9)
Aerial view showing the salt works which were built at the center of the double D-shaped plan
Director's House, Saltworks, Arc et Senans; note the Banded Doric columns
Detail The curved range of work buildings
Detail used extensively throughout the Saltworks - showing concentrated salt water at the final moment before crystallization
After a theory as Kupferstecher it was in of Paris pupils of the architect
Jacques François Blondel, an important theoretician of the classicism, and
rounded its training with that 1757 from Rome L returned - F. Trouard off.
Its first building was the lock of Eaubonne (1764); the change of the Hôtel
followed d`Hallwyl in the style of the classicism (1764-66; from 15 of it in
Paris built for city palaces the only received one), as well as among other
things the Hôtel d`Uzès (1767), the Hôtel Guimard (1770, destroyed), the
Hôtel de Montmorency (1772, 1869 burned down), the Hôtel Saint Germain
(1772, 1862 burned down) as well as with Caen the lock of Bénouville
(1768-77), which already betrays its preference for geometrical, simple and
schnoerkellose, in addition, monumental forms. The desire house (1770-72),
carried out by it in Louveciennes, was a gift Ludwig XV. at madame you
Barry, whose favour did not carry its career incompetently: 1771 it became
"Comissaire you Roi" and "Inspecteur of the Salines de Franche
Franche-Comté" (1771-93). From madame you Barry followed the orders for the
Petit Château in Eaubonne "(1772/1773), COMM us in Versailles (1772) as well
as for projects for a lock in Louveciennes (1772/73) and a Hôtel in Paris.
1773 it becomes member of the Académie Royale of the Beaux kind.
The drafts for the royal saltworks and city of Chaux, manufactured for the salzgewinnung between the localities Arc and Senans starting from 1774, are expression of a new ideology referring into the social. From the project only the actual saltworks range not however the umkraenzende city is carried out. But the idea of an ideal ganzheitlichen production and dwelling seems also in the fragment up: around the house of the director, to a certain extent under its guidance, supervision and responsibility, semicircularly the processing and workshops are arranged, around again the ring (did not realize) of the living and administrative city to put should the aufklaererische attitude of mind increasingly certainly also the organization of the buildings themselves. Reason and diagram predominantly become from the ark-typical forms of the cube, which determines ball and the pyramid, whereby decorating decoration is void increasingly. In the late work a "architecture parlante" is publicised: the function of the Reifenmachers coins/shapes the form of its house, by the house of the river guard flows the river...
Briefly before the revolution, starting from 1785, he sketches Calonne, in his cool rational, on behalf contrôleur général the Finances, in its varieties the organization of the individual houses in addition, eklektischem style over 50 customs offices, which are arranged around Paris in a belt and which is to ensure a complete collection of city dues; mentioned by it self-confidently "les propylées". The revolution brought it as symbols of the repression away-swept (from 10 to 14 July 1789, up to 4) and to Ledoux 1794 as a helper of the the potentiometer mash into the prison de la Force, for which pikanterweise drafts of the revolution architect Boullée are the basis. It used the detention around itself in its with 125 copper passes (in particular not realized drafts) equipped work "L'Architecture considérée sous le rapport de l'art, moers et de la législation" (1804 in Paris publish; New edition in two volumes, without interpreting text new 1847 under the title "L'Architecture de Claude Nicolas Ledoux") as a revolution architect. Buildings still which can be mentioned: the theatre in Besancon (1778-84), the house Hosten in Paris (1787) as well as the prison in Aix (1786-90).