Essential Architecture- the North East

Fisher Fine Arts Library


Frank Furness, FAIA


University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA




Victorian High Gothic





University of Pennsylvania

Motto Leges sine moribus vanae (Laws without morals are useless.)
Established 1740[1]
Type Private
Endowment US $5.923 billion[2]
President Amy Gutmann
Staff 4,603
Undergraduates 9,718
Postgraduates 10,103
Location Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Campus Urban, 269 acres (1.1 km²)
Athletics 33 varsity teams
Colors Maroon and Navy
Nickname Quakers
Affiliations Ivy League, AAU

The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn) is a co-educational, private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. According to the university, it is America's first university[5] and is the fourth-oldest[6] institution of higher education in the United States. Penn is also a member of the Ivy League and is one of the Colonial Colleges.

Nine signers of the Declaration of Independence and eleven signers of the Constitution are associated with the University. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model developed by several European universities, concentrating several "faculties" under one institution.

Penn is acknowledged as a leader in the arts and humanities, the social sciences, architecture, communications, and education.[7] [8]. Penn is particularly noted for its schools of business, law and medicine (see BusinessWeek magazine and U.S. News and World Report).[9] About 4,500 professors serve nearly 10,000 full-time undergraduate and 10,000 graduate and professional students. Penn is incorporated as "The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania."

In FY2006, Penn's academic research programs undertook more than $660 million in research, involving some 4,200 faculty, 870 postdoctoral fellows, 3,800 graduate students, and 5,400 support staff. Much of the funding is provided by the National Institutes of Health for biomedical research. In 2005, Penn was awarded $470 million in grants by the NIH, ranking it second among all universities.[10]

Penn tops the Ivy League in annual spending, with a projected 2006 budget of $4.41 billion, including a payroll of $2.183 billion. In 2006, it ranked fourth among U.S. universities in fundraising, bringing in about $409.5 million in private support[11]. Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities.


Benjamin Franklin Statue, in front of College Hall

In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the evangelist Rev. George Whitefield. Designed and built by Edmund Woolley, it was the largest building in the city and it was also planned to serve as a charity school. The fundraising, however, fell short and although the building was erected, the plans for both a chapel and the charity school were suspended. In the fall of 1749, eager to create a college to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals for the Education of Youth in Pensilvania," his vision for what he called a "Publick Academy of Philadelphia." However, according to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first drew up a proposal for establishing the academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution." Unlike the other three American Colonial colleges that existed at the time — Harvard, William and Mary, and Yale — Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy. He advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study became the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum.

Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees (November 13, 1749) the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from Independence Hall was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, which was still vacant, would be an even better site. On February 1, 1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. In 1751 the Academy, using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first students. A charity school also was opened in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years.

Quad in the Fall, facing Ware College House

For its date of founding, the University uses 1740, the date of "the creation of the earliest of the many educational trusts the University has taken upon itself"[12] (the charity school mentioned above) during its existence.

The institution was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost Rev. William Smith's loyalist tendencies, the revolutionary State Legislature created a University of the State of Pennsylvania [13]. The result was a schism, with Rev. William Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into the University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new board of trustees.[14] These three schools were part of the same institution and were overseen by the same board of Trustees[15].

Penn has two claims to being the First university in the United States, according to university archive director Mark Frazier Lloyd: founding the first medical school in America in 1765, makes it the first university de facto, while, by virtue of the 1779 charter, "no other American institution of higher learning was named University before Penn."[5]

After being located in downtown Philadelphia for more than a century, the campus was moved across the Schuylkill River to property purchased from the Blockley Almshouse in West Philadelphia in 1872, where it has since remained in an area now known as University City.

 Other Historical Facts of the University of Pennsylvania

College Hall and Logan Hall viewed from Woodland Ave., ca. 1892.

Penn's educational innovations include: the nation's first medical school in 1765; the first university teaching hospital in 1874; the Wharton School, the world's first collegiate school of business, in 1881; the first American student union building, Houston Hall, in 1896; the country's second school of veterinary medicine; and the home of ENIAC, the world's first electronic, large-scale, general-purpose digital computer in 1946. Penn is also home to the oldest Psychology department in North America and where the American Medical Association was founded.[16][17]

Penn is one of the nation's few private universities to be named for the place in which it is located (others include Princeton University, University of Southern California, Georgetown University, Boston College, Boston University, Syracuse University, New York University, and the University of Chicago). Because of this, Penn is sometimes confused with the Pennsylvania State University (also known as "Penn State"), a public research university whose main campus is located in the geographic center of Pennsylvania in State College.

Penn's motto is based on a line from Horace’s III.24 (Book 3, Ode 24), quid leges sine moribus vanae proficiunt? ("of what avail empty laws without [good] mores?") From 1756 to 1898, the motto read Sine Moribus Vanae. When a wag pointed out that the motto could be translated as "Loose women without morals," the university quickly changed the motto to literae sine moribus vanae ("Letters without morals [are] useless"). In 1932, all elements of the seal were revised, and as part of the redesign it was decided that the new motto "mutilated" Horace, and it was changed to its present wording, Leges Sine Moribus Vanae ("Laws without morals [are] useless").[18]

Lower Quad in Winter, from Riepe College House

University of Pennsylvania Dental School

Logan Hall, home of The College of Arts and Sciences

At the undergraduate level, Penn's business and nursing schools have maintained their #1, 2 or 3 rankings since U.S. News began reviewing such programs. The departments of African American literature, anthropology, art history, bioengineering, biology, communications, computer science, English, economics, French, history, mechanical engineering, political science, psychology, and Spanish are also extremely well regarded.

Penn's graduate schools are among the most distinguished schools in their respective fields. Historically, Penn's graduate level programs have ranked higher in their respective academic fields than the overall undergraduate program relative to other colleges. Significant investments in Penn's faculty, in marketing the institution to new students and more aggressive sourcing of research and endowment funds have allowed Penn to maintain the standing of its graduate schools even as the university focused intensively on advancing its undergraduate programs. The schools of business (Wharton School), architecture (School of Design), communications (Annenberg School for Communication), medicine (School of Medicine), dentistry, nursing and veterinary medicine rank in the top five nationally (see U.S. News, National Research Council, DesignIntelligence magazines). Penn's law school is ranked seven and the social work and education schools are ranked in the top ten (U.S. News).

 Admissions selectivity
The university received 20,479 applications for the Class of 2010 entering in the fall of 2006; Penn admitted 17.7 percent of those applicants, representing its most selective admissions year in history. For comparison, in recent years, Penn has received 18,000–20,000 applications for each freshman class, has admitted 20–25% of applications and yielded 60–65% of its extended offers.

In 2002, The Atlantic Monthly ranked it as the eighth most selective college in the United States (factoring in average grades, SAT scores, students' high school rankings, and offer yields).[citation needed]

At the graduate level, Penn's admissions rates—like most universities'—vary considerably based on school and program. Based on admission statistics from U.S. News, Penn's most selective programs include its law school, the health care schools (medicine, dental medicine, nursing), and its business school.

 Joint-degree and interdisciplinary programs
Penn offers specialized joint-degree programs, which award candidates degrees from multiple schools at the University upon completion of graduation criteria of both schools. Undergraduate programs include:

The Jerome Fisher Program in Management and Technology
The Huntsman Program in International Studies and Business
Nursing and Health Care Management
The Roy and Diana Vagelos Program in Life Sciences and Management
Civic Scholars Program[22]
Dual Degree programs which lead to the same multiple degrees without participation in the specific above programs are also available. Unlike joint-degree programs, "dual degree" students fulfill requirements of both programs independently without involvement of another program. Specialized Dual Degree programs include Liberal Studies and Technology as well as a Computer and Cognitive Science Program. Both programs award a degree from the College of Arts and Science and a degree from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

For graduate programs, there are many formalized joint degree graduate programs such as a joint J.D./MBA. Penn is also the home to interdisciplinary institutions such as the Institute for Medicine and Engineering, the Joseph H. Lauder Institute for Management and International Studies, the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science, and the Executive Master's in Technology Management Program.

 Academic Medical Center and Biomedical Research Complex
Penn's health-related programs - including the Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, Nursing and Veterinary Medicine, and programs in bioengineering (School of Engineering) and health management (the Wharton School) - are among the university's strongest academic components. The combination of intellectual breadth, research funding (each of the health sciences schools ranks in the top 5 in annual NIH funding), clinical resources and overall scale ranks Penn with only a small handful of peer universities in the U.S.

The size of Penn's biomedical research organization, however, adds a very capital intensive component to the university's operations, and introduces revenue instability due to changing government regulations, reduced Federal funding for research, and Medicaid/Medicare program changes. This is a primary reason highlighted in bond rating agencies' views on Penn's overall financial rating, which ranks one notch below its academic peers. Penn has worked to address these issues by pooling its schools (as well as several hospitals and clinical practices) into the University of Pennsylvania Health System, thereby pooling resources for greater efficiencies and research impact.


Overlooking Lower Quad from Upper Quad

Much of Penn's architecture was designed by Cope & Stewardson. The two architects combined the Gothic architecture of the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge - retaining some of their classical elements - with the local landscape to establish the Collegiate Gothic style. The present core campus covers over 269 acres (~1 km²) in a contiguous area of western Philadelphia's University City district. All of Penn's schools and most of its research institutes are located on this campus. Recent improvements to the surrounding neighborhood includes the opening of several restaurants, a large upscale grocery store, and a movie theater on the western edge of campus.

Penn recently acquired approximately 35 acres of land located between the campus and the Schuylkill River (the former site of the Philadelphia Civic Center and a nearby 24-acre site owned by the US Postal Service), which will be redeveloped for expanded educational, research, biomedical, and mixed-use facilities over the next ten years.

Upper Quad Gate.

The postal site extends from Market Street on the north to Penn’s Bower Field on the south. It encompasses the main U.S. Postal Building at 30th and Market Streets (the retail post office at the east end of the building will remain open), the Postal Annex between Chestnut Street and Walnut Street, the Vehicle Maintenance Facility Garage along Chestnut Street and the 14 acres of surface parking south of Walnut Street. Acquisition of the Postal Lands, which will become official in 2007, will allow Penn to create new connections between the campus and the city, including a pedestrian bridge, and provide additional space for research, teaching, housing and retail.

In addition to its properties in West Philadelphia, the University owns the 92 acre Morris Arboretum in Chestnut Hill in northwestern Philadelphia, the official arboretum of the state of Pennsylvania. Penn also owns the 687 acre New Bolton Center, the research and large-animal health care center of its Veterinary School. New Bolton Center received nationwide media attention when Kentucky Derby winner Barbaro underwent surgery at its Widener Hospital for multiple fractures to his right hind leg, suffered while running in the Preakness Stakes on May 20, 2006. It is located near Kennett Square, Pennsylvania.

Penn borders Drexel University and is near the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia (USP). Also nearby is the University City High School.


Penn's library began in 1750 with a donation of books from cartographer Louis Evans. Twelve years later, then-provost William Smith sailed to England to raise additional funds to increase the collection size. More than 250 years later, it has grown into a system of 15 libraries (13 are on the contiguous campus) with 400 FTE employees and a total operating budget of more than $48 million. The library system holds 5.7 million book and serial volumes. It subscribes to 44,000 print serials and e-journals.[23]

Penn's Libraries, with associated school or subject area:

Annenberg (School of Communications), located in the Annenberg School
Biddle (Law), located in the Law School
Biomedical, located adjacent to the Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion of the Medical School
Center for Advanced Judaic Studies, located on Walnut Street at Washington Square
Chemistry, located in the 1973 Wing of the Chemistry Building
Fine Arts, located within the Fisher Fine Arts Library
Lippincott (Wharton School), located on the second floor of the Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center
Math/Physics/Astronomy, located on the third floor of David Rittenhouse Laboratory
Museum (Anthropology)
Rare Books and Manuscripts
Van Pelt-Dietrich Library Center (Humanities and Social Sciences)
High Density Storage

 The University Museum
The University Museum, as it is commonly called, was founded in 1887. During the early twentieth century UPM conducted some of the first and most important archaeological and anthropological expeditions to Egypt, Mesopotamia, Africa, East Asia and South America, thus the collection includes a very large number of antiquities from ancient Egypt and the Middle East. Its most famous object is the goat rearing into the branches of a rosette-leafed plant, from the royal tombs of Ur. The Museum also has a strong collection of Chinese artifacts. Features of its Beaux-Arts building include a dramatic rotunda and gardens that include Egyptian papyrus. UPM's scientific division, MASCA, focuses on the application of modern scientific techniques to aid the interpretation of archaeological contexts.

The Institute of Contemporary Art based on Penn's campus showcases various exhibitions of art throughout the year.

Stouffer College House
Fisher Hassenfeld College House
Rodin College House
Harrison College House
Harnwell College House
Hill College House
DuBois College House
Gregory College House
Mayer College House
Kings Court / English House
Ware College House
Riepe College House

 Student life

Locust Walk lit up during the winter season

39.2 percent of those accepted for admission to the Class of 2009 are Asian, Hispanic, African, or Native American. Women comprise 51.3 percent of all students currently enrolled. A total of 2,440 international students applied for admission to Penn's undergraduate schools for the Class of 2008, and 489 (20%) were accepted. More than 13% of the first year class are international students. Of the international students accepted to the Class of 2008, 15.8% were from Africa and the Middle East, 48.1% from Asia, 0.4% from Australia and the Pacific, 11.7% from Canada and Mexico, 10% from Central/South America and the Caribbean, and 14.1% from Europe. Penn had 4,192 international students enrolled at all levels in Fall 2004.

Fraternity houses on Locust Walk

The Daily Pennsylvanian has been published since 1885, and is among the top college papers in the country, regularly winning Pacemaker and CSPA Gold Circle awards. The Pennsylvania Punch Bowl is one of the nation's oldest humor magazines. The student-run TV station UTV13 is the oldest college TV station in the country.

The University's Political Science Department is known for publishing a semesterly scholarly journal of undergraduate research called "Sound Politicks." The journal is student-run and is widely noted for the originality and quality of the articles it publishes. It accepts submissions from Penn students year round. There are many such journals across the university.

The University of Pennsylvania Band has been a fixture of student life on campus since 1897. The Penn Band performs at football and basketball games as well as University functions throughout the year and has a current membership of approximately 80 students.


The first athletic team at Penn was its cricket team.[24] In the sport of football, "Penn first fielded a team against Princeton at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia on November 11, 1876. [25]

Penn's sports teams are called the Quakers. They participate in the Ivy League and Division I (Division I-AA for football) in the NCAA. In recent decades they often have been league champions in football (12 times from 1982 to 2003) and basketball (22 times from 1970 to 2006). Penn football made many contributions to the sport in its early days. During the 1890s Penn's famed coach George Woodruff introduced the quarternick kick, a forerunner of the forward pass, as well as the place-kick from scrimmage and the delayed pass. In 1894, 1895, 1897 and 1904 Penn was generally regarded the national champion of collegiate football.[26] The achievements of two of Penn's outstanding players from that era—John Heisman and John Outland—are remembered each year with the presentation of the Heisman Trophy to the most outstanding college football player of the year and the Outland Trophy to the most outstanding college football interior lineman of the year.

Franklin Field

University of Pennsylvania Basketball is steeped in tradition. Penn made its only (and the Ivy League's second) Final Four appearance in 1979, where the Quakers lost to the Magic Johnson-led Michigan State Spartans in Salt Lake City. (Dartmouth twice finished second in the tournament in the 1940s, but that was before the beginning of formal League play). Penn is also is one of the teams in the Big Five, along with La Salle, Saint Joseph's, Temple and Villanova.

The Palestra, "Cathedral of Basketball"

Penn's home court, the Palestra, is an arena used for Big Five contests as well as high-school sporting events. The Palestra has hosted more NCAA Tournament basketball games than any other facility. Franklin Field, where the Quakers play football, hosts the annual collegiate track and field event "the Penn Relays," and once was the home field of the National Football League's Philadelphia Eagles. It was also the site of the early Army-Navy football games. Franklin Field, the oldest stadium still operating for football games, was also the home to the first commercially-televised football game, and was also the first stadium to sport two tiers. In 2004, Penn Men's Rugby won the EPRU championship. In 2006, the Quakers lost in the first round of the Men's Basketball NCAA Tournament to the Texas Longhorns.

 Notable people

Some noted University of Pennsylvania alumni include the ninth President of the United States, William Henry Harrison,[27] real estate mogul Donald Trump, CEO and investor Warren Buffett (the world's second richest man; he attended for a year before transferring to the University of Nebraska), Cisco Systems co-founder Len Bosack, linguist and activist Noam Chomsky, American industrialist Jon Huntsman, civil rights attorney Gloria Allred, philanthropist Walter Annenberg, E. Digby Baltzell who is credited with the popularization of the acronym WASP, U.S. Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Drew Gilpin Faust, president-elect of Harvard University, and numerous other past and present U.S. Ambassadors, members of congress, governors, cabinet members, and corporate leaders.

The university has come under fire several times in recent years for free speech issues. In spite of this, Penn is one of only two Ivy League universities (the other being Dartmouth College) to receive the highest possible free speech rating from the watchdog group Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, founded by noted Penn professor and civil libertarian Alan Charles Kors.

 Water buffalo incident
The 1993 water buffalo incident concerned a Penn student who was charged with violating Penn's racial harassment policy for shouting "Shut up, you water buffalo" from his dorm window to a crowd of noisy, mostly-black sorority sisters. Dispute raged over whether or not "water buffalo" was a racial epithet and also whether the university ought to prohibit racially offensive speech. After national media attention, including a Doonesbury cartoon, the women agreed to drop charges.

 Photography and the First Amendment
In the fall semester of 2005, two University of Pennsylvania undergraduate students were unknowingly photographed as they had sex against one of the windows of a sixteenth floor dorm room in Hamilton College House (now named Rodin College House). The photographer, who shot the photos from Harrison College House, was another University of Pennsylvania undergraduate student and the photos he shot were posted on the web. The story was picked up by the local and national media and the controversial photograph was published in the Daily Pennsylvanian and other local newspapers. Penn originally intended to press charges against the photographer through the Office of Student Conduct, and the photographed student threatened to sue[citation needed]. With the assistance of Professor Alan Kors all charges were eventually dropped. The event sparked heated debate over First Amendment rights and how the private university would respond in light of its own declared commitment to the rights of its students and faculty.[28]

 Halloween incident
On October 31, 2006, Saad Saadi, a student at Penn, attended president Amy Gutmann's annual Halloween Party dressed as a suicide bomber. Gutmann claims that she unknowingly posed for pictures with the student. She has received harsh criticism for this act, spurring a debate among Penn alumni regarding whether or not Gutmann's actions were tolerable.[29]

^ The University officially uses 1740 as its founding date and has since 1899. The ideas and intellectual inspiration for the academic institution stem from 1749, with a pamphlet published by Benjamin Franklin. When Franklin's institution was established, it inhabited a schoolhouse built in 1740 for another school, which never came to practical fruition. Penn archivist Mark Frazier Lloyd [1] notes: “In 1899, Penn’s Trustees adopted a resolution that established 1740 as the founding date, but good cases may be made for 1749, when Franklin first convened the Trustees, or 1751, when the first classes were taught, or 1755, when Penn obtained its collegiate charter." Princeton's library[2] presents another, carefully nuanced view.
^ In addition to Penn, U of P and Pennsylvania, UPenn has come into fairly common usage due to university officials establishing the domain name of the university as "" Penn has been used by sportswriters for at least a century, e.g. Crowther, Samuel (1905). Rowing and Track Athletics. The Macmillan company, 85. [3]. Official emphasis on Penn began c. 1990 and intensified in 2002 with President Rodin's "One University" initiative.[4]. The University's formal branding and usage guidelines [5], [6], [7] specify Penn and the "Penn-University of Pennsylvania" logo but do not explicitly deprecate UPenn or other abbreviations. The recent popularity of UPenn is probably influenced by campus email addresses which use the domain name "," and possibly by parallels with UMass and UConn (which, unlike UPenn, have official status and are trademarked). Daily Pennsylvanian columnist Jeff Shafer traces the origin of the "upenn" domain name to pre-Internet days, citing SAS computing head Ira Winston as saying that in the early days of email the University chose upenn.csnet, which "mimicked the University of Delaware's udel.csnet." Thus the choice of "upenn" was made when computer network names had little public visibility, and before the university decided to emphasize Penn as part of a conscious branding strategy. Shafer says the university studied the feasibility of full conversion to "" in 2002 but decided that the costs were too high.[8]. UPenn is seen in college guides.[9]. The abbreviation "U. Penn" appears in novels[10] and in academic journal abbreviations, e.g U. Penn L. Rev[11], (although the National Library of Medicine uses the abbreviation Univ PA).[12] "U Penn"[13][14] and U-Penn[15] are also seen.
^ "Penn" is also used regionally to refer to William Penn University, a liberal arts college in Iowa: Multi-faceted construction project on Penn campus, Penn people, Osky’s Snowbarger signs with Penn volleyball team
^ a b The University of Pennsylvania: America's First University. University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
^ Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution. Penn, Princeton, and Columbia originated within a few years of each other. In 1899, Penn officially changed its "founding" date from 1749 to 1740, affecting its rank. See Building Penn's Brand for the reasons why Penn did this. Princeton University implicitly challenges this[16], also claiming to be fourth. Penn was chartered in 1755, making it sixth-oldest chartered, behind Princeton (1746) and Columbia (1754). A Presbyterian minister operated a "Log College" in Bucks County, Pennsylvania from 1726 until 1746; some have suggested a connection between it and the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) which would justify pushing Princeton's founding date back to 1726, earlier than Penn's 1740. But Princeton never has done so and a Princeton historian says that "the facts do not warrant" such an interpretation. [17].
^ America's Best Colleges 2006: National Universities: Top Schools. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
^ Cheyney, Edward Potts. History of the University of Pennsylvania 1740–1940 University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. 1940. pp 46–48.
^ Penn in the 18th Century. University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
^ Welcome to the Department of Psychology. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
^ History of the School of Medicine. University Archives and Records Center, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
^ Hughes, Samuel (2002). "Whiskey, Loose Women, and Fig Leaves: The University's seal has a curious history". Pennsylvania Gazette 100 (3).
^ [18]
^ [19]
^ [20]
^ Launches Civic Scholars Program: Four Years of Community Service, Leadership and Research
^ Penn Library Data Farm. Retrieved on 2006-04-29.
^ Kieran, John (1932), "Sports of the Times," The New York Times, Oct. 8, 1932, p. 22.
^ Rottenberg, Dan (1985) "Fight On, Pennsylvania" Trustees of University of Pennsylvania pg. 25.
^ Rottenberg, Dan (1985) "Fight On, Pennsylvania" Trustees of University of Pennsylvania pg. 28, 33–34.
^ William Henry Harrison, Ohio History Central Online Encyclopedia[21]: "At his father’s insistence, [he] studied medicine from 1790 to 1791 at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Upon his father’s death in 1791, Harrison immediately joined the United States Army."
^ [22]
^ Daily Pennsylvanian story Controversy Erupts over Student in Terror Garb
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