|100 Places To See Before You Die|
|the architecture you must see....|
|Top Ten World Architecture Click here for complete list|
|50 Strange Buildings of the World|
|Paris (click city names for more extensive lists)|
|Eiffel Tower||Notre Dame Cathedral||Mont Martre||Loire Valley Châteaux||Centre Pompidou||St. Louis des Invalides|
|Palace of Versailles||Place des Vosges||Paris Opera||Villa Savoye||Arc de Triomph||Musée du Louvre|
|Roman Colosseum||Pantheon||Piazza di Spagna||Piazza Navona||Piazza del Campidoglio||S. Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane|
|St. Peter's of Rome||Vatican City||The Roman Forum||Trevi Fountain||Arch of Titus||Mausoleum of Hadrian|
|Florence Cathedral||Ospedale Degli Innocenti||Ponte Vecchio||S. Maria Novella||Palazzo Strozzi||San Lorenzo|
|Sagrada Familia, Barcelona||Park Guell, Barcelona||The Alhambra, Granada||Generalife, Granada||the Mezquita, Cordoba||Seville cathedral, Seville|
|United Kingdom London|
|Stonehenge||Saint Paul's Cathedral||Westminster Abbey||Westminster Palace, or Houses of Parliament||Tower of London||Winchester Cathedral|
|The Kremlin, Moscow, Russia||Dublin||Brandenburg Gate, Berlin||Neuschwanstein, Bavaria||The Acropolis, Greece||Amsterdam|
|The Great Pyramids at Giza||The Sphinx||Temple of Ramses II||Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut||Colossi of Memnon||The Temple of Amon|
|Phillips Exeter Academy Library, Exeter, NH||Vanderbilt Residence, Asheville, NC.||Monticello , Charlottesville, VA.||University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA||Fallingwater, Bear Run, PA.||"Glass House," Philip Johnson house, New Canaan, CT|
|Empire State Building||STATUE OF LIBERTY||Chrysler Building||Brooklyn Bridge||Grand Central Terminal||Woolworth Building|
|The White House||Thomas Jefferson Memorial||U.S. Capitol||Lincoln Memorial||Washington Monument||Supreme Court|
|Chichén Itzá, Mexico||Christ Redeemer, Rio||Machu Picchu, Peru|
|The Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey||Petra, Jordan||Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem||Samarra, Great (or al-Mutawakkil) Mosque, Baghdad, Iraq||Isfahan, Great Mosque, Iran||Registan Square, Samarkand, Uzbekistan|
|The Taj Mahal, India||Angkor Wat, Cambodia||Dubai||The Forbidden City, Peking||The Summer Palace, Peking||Temple of Heaven, Peking|
|The Great Wall, China||Easter Island Moas||The Sydney Opera House||Timbuktu, Mali|
|major cities in detail click here for complete list|
Alpha world cities (full service world cities)
12 points: London, New York, Paris, Tokyo
10 points: Chicago, Frankfort, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Milan, Singapore
Beta world cities (major world cities)
9 points: San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, Zürich
8 points: Brussels, Madrid, Mexico City, São Paulo
7 points: Moscow, Seoul
Gamma world cities (minor world cities)
6 points: Amsterdam, Boston, Caracas, Dallas, Düsseldorf, Geneva, Houston, Jakarta, Johannesburg, Melbourne, Osaka, Prague, Santiago, Taipei, Washington
5 points: Bangkok, Beijing, Montreal, Rome, Stockholm, Warsaw
4 points: Atlanta, Barcelona, Berlin, Budapest, Buenos Aires, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Miami, Minneapolis, Munich, Shanghai
It has been argued that global cities are those sharing the following characteristics:
International, first-name familiarity; whereby a city is recognised without the need for a political subdivision. For example. although there are numerous cities and other political entities with the name Paris or variations on it, one would say "Paris", not "Paris, France".
Active influence and participation in international events and world affairs; for example, New York City is home to the United Nations headquarters complex and consequently contains a vast majority of the permanent missions to the UN.
A fairly large population (the centre of a metropolitan area with a population of at least one million, typically several million).
A major international airport (for example, London Heathrow Airport) that serves as an established hub for several international airlines.
An advanced transportation system that includes several freeways and/or a large mass transit network offering multiple modes of transportation (rapid transit, light rail, regional rail, ferry, or bus).
In the West, several international cultures and communities (such as a Chinatown, a Little Italy, or other immigrant communities). In other parts of the world, cities which attract large foreign businesses and related expatriate communities; for example, Singapore, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Tokyo, and Moscow.
International financial institutions, law firms, corporate headquarters (especially conglomerates), and stock exchanges (for example the London Stock Exchange, the New York Stock Exchange or the Tokyo Stock Exchange) that have influence over the world economy.
An advanced communications infrastructure on which modern trans-national corporations rely, such as fiberoptics, Wi-Fi networks, cellular phone services, and other high-speed lines of communications.
World-renowned cultural institutions, such as museums and universities.
A lively cultural scene, including film festivals (for example the Toronto International Film Festival), premieres, a thriving music or theatre scene (for example, West End theatre and Broadway); an orchestra, an opera company, art galleries, and street performers.
Several powerful and influential media outlets with an international reach, such as the BBC, Associated Press, Reuters, The New York Times, The Times, or Agence France-Presse.
A strong sporting community, including major sports facilities, home teams in major league sports, and the ability and historical experience to host international sporting events such as the Olympic Games, Football World Cup, or Grand Slam tennis events.
To some, London, New York City, Paris, and Tokyo have been traditionally considered the 'big four' world cities – not coincidentally, they also serve as symbols of global capitalism. However, many people have their own personal lists, and any two lists are likely to differ based on cultural background, values, and experience.
In certain countries, the rise of suburbia and the ongoing migration of manufacturing jobs to these countries has led to significant urban decay. Therefore, to boost urban regeneration, tourism, and revenue, the goal of building a "world-class" city has recently become an obsession with the governments of some mid-size cities and their constituents.
The phenomenon of world-city building has also been observed in Buenos Aires, Santiago, Frankfurt, Montréal, Sydney, Mexico City and Toronto: each of these cities has emerged as large and influential.
Evidence of world city formation
3 points: Athens, Auckland, Dublin, Helsinki, Luxembourg, Lyon, Mumbai, New Delhi, Philadelphia, Rio de Janeiro, Tel Aviv, Vienna
2 points: Abu Dhabi, Almaty, Birmingham (UK), Bogotá, Bratislava, Brisbane, Bucharest, Cairo, Cleveland, Cologne, Detroit, Dubai, Ho Chi Minh City, Kiev, Lima, Lisbon, Manchester, Montevideo, Oslo, Riyadh, Rotterdam, Seattle, Strasbourg, Stuttgart, The Hague, Vancouver
1 point: Adelaide, Antwerp, Aarhus, Baltimore, Bangalore, Bologna, Brasília, Calgary, Cape Town, Colombo, Columbus, Dresden, Edinburgh, Genoa, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Kansas City, Leeds, Lille, Marseille, Richmond, St. Petersburg, Tashkent, Tehran, Tijuana, Turin, Utrecht, Wellington
GaWC Leading World Cities (2004 Edition)
An attempt to redefine and recategorise leading world cities was made by PJ Taylor at GaWC in 2004.
This ranking list is referred to as the Official GaWC List.
Well rounded global cities
Very large contribution: London and New York City.
Smaller contribution and with cultural bias: Los Angeles, Paris and San Francisco.
Incipient global cities: Amsterdam, Boston, Chicago, Madrid, Milan, Moscow, Toronto.
Global niche cities - specialised global contributions
Economic: Hong Kong, Singapore, and Tokyo.
Political and social: Brussels, Geneva, Strasbourg and Washington.
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